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The EEA (EC, Iceland , Norway and Liechtenstein) is considered as a single territory with a common EEA originating status.

European Economic Area

a) General introduction

The Contracting Parties to the EEA Agreement (1994) are the EC, Iceland , Norway and Liechtenstein. Protocol 4 to the Agreement contains the rules of origin applicable between the parties.

These countries apply full cumulation between them, the EEA being considered as a single territory, with a common "EEA originating status".

Protocol 4 is part, through its Article 3, of the pan-European system of cumulation of origin. As a result, EEA countries are members of the pan-European system and apply diagonal cumulation with the other pan-European countries.

Detailed information about EEA full cumulation of origin and its linkage to the pan-European system of cumulation of origin is available in the User’s Handbook to the rules of Preferential Origin used in the trade between the EC and other European countries.

b) Legal framework

EEA full cumulation is provided for by Protocol 4 to the Agreement (OJ L 137, 05.06.2003). In parallel, each EEA member has a network of preferential agreements signed with the other pan-European partners, including origin protocols which have to consist of identical rules. These protocols have been amended several times. A table with the references to the OJs containing the protocols on rules of origin between the EC and the other pan-European partners is included in the User’s handbook.

and can also be found in the list of arrangements.

c) Specific provisions

NOTICE: These specific provisions only contain information on cases where the rules of the particular arrangement differ from the common provisions, or where these common provisions need to be complemented. Therefore, always check the common provisions too.


EEA members apply diagonal cumulation of origin with the rest of the pan-European countries, and full cumulation between themselves.

An important point is that EEA members can apply diagonal pan-European cumulation of origin also between themselves whenever it can confer preferential origin of an EEA country (in this case the declared origin will be the one of the country, not the EEA origin itself).

Proof of origin

In the case of EEA full cumulation the pan-European proofs of origin (EUR.1 certificate or an invoice declaration) are required. Their period of validity and the exemptions from certification of origin granted by the Protocol are the same that apply at pan-European level.


Almost all of the specificities of the pan-European system of cumulation of origin apply to EEA full cumulation (no drawback rule, general tolerance rule, principle of territoriality, direct transport rule, accounting segregation, administrative co-operation…). However, the following must be mentioned:

  • Full cumulation applicable inside the EEA.
  • Existence of an “EEA originating status” for goods obtaining preferential origin through full cumulation. Whenever diagonal (pan-European) cumulation is applied the origin declared will be EC, Norway , Iceland or Liechtenstein.

The different manufacturing operations on non-originating materials inside the zone are traced either through a supplier's declaration or a long-term supplier's declaration (see Council Regulation (EC) N° 1207/2001 of 11 June 2001).