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28/11/2016

Working paper 2/2016 - The coverage rate of income support measures in the EU: measurement and challenges  (28/11/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-EW-16-002-EN-N

Coverage, or the capacity to reach persons in need, is an important element of the effectiveness of social protection schemes. This paper deals with the measurement of coverage rates for income support schemes aimed at replacing the lack of primary income for the working age population, focusing on unemployment benefits and minimum income support.

27/10/2016

Labour Market and Wage Developments in Europe - Annual Review 2016  (27/10/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-BN-16-001-EN-N

The Labour Market and Wage Developments in Europe report analyses the labour market from a macroeconomic perspective. It provides an analysis of recent employment and wage developments, looking at the euro area and the EU as a whole in comparison with its global trading partners. The 2016 edition shows that job creation continued to progress in 2015 and 2016 and analyses the reasons behind this improvement. The report also focuses on the macroeconomic implications of statutory minimum wages in the EU and surveys the institutional minimum wage setting mechanisms in place in EU Member States.

19/10/2016

Updating of the Labour Market Model  (19/10/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-06-16-072-EN-N

The aim of this study is to allow the Commission to update the calibration and further operationalize the existing Labour Market Model. This model has been set up by external experts in order to improve the European Commission’s understanding of transmission mechanisms of labour market policies in the context of the European Employment Strategy. The Labour Market Model is used to provide a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying the possible direction and intensity of the effects of labour market policies. It uses actual economic data to estimate how an economy might react to changes in labour market policies or other policy reforms or external factor.

07/09/2016

How are refugees faring on the labour market in Europe? Working Paper 1/2016  (07/09/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-01-16-824-EN-N

This paper is a joint effort by the OECD and the European Commission to make a first evaluation of the situation on refugees on the labour market. It is based on the 2014 EU Labour Force Survey. Available evidence confirms that refugees are one of the most vulnerable groups when it comes to labour market integration but show however, significant differences across European countries.

25/04/2016

Flexibility versus Stability - A difficult tradeoff in the Eurozone  (25/04/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-04-16-365-EN-N

Since the eruption of the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone, substantial efforts have been made to create a new form of governance for the Eurozone that will make the monetary union more robust in absorbing future economic and financial shocks. Much of the drive to adapt the governance of the Eurozone has been influenced by the traditional theory of optimal currency areas (OCA), which stresses the need for flexibility in product and labour markets. As a result, the Eurozone countries have been pushed towards structural reforms that aim to reduce the structural rigidities in product and labour markets. In this paper we ask whether this movement towards structural reform as part of the push for new governance is really going in the right direction. We will argue that this is not the case. The main reason is that the nature of the shocks that have hit the Eurozone does not correspond to the pattern of asymmetric shocks that has been identified by the OCA theory to require more flexibility. We will argue that what is needed in the Eurozone is not more structural reforms but a better mechanism capable of dealing with the classical boom and bust dynamics that are inherent to capitalism.

21/01/2016

Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2015  (21/01/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-BD-15-001-EN-N

Success in raising employment levels and living standards in Europe depends on effective support policies as well as positive macro-economic strategies. In this respect, this year’s Employment and Social Developments review addresses a range of issues.

It starts by looking at the contribution of entrepreneurship and self-employment to job creation and growth and the need to tackle the difficulties faced by the self-employed and notably micro and small companies. It then looks at the role of labour legislation in supporting more and better jobs and the need to strike the right balance between flexibility and protection. It then moves on to look at the best actions to avoid unemployment turning into long-term unemployment and inactivity. More broadly, given technology change, globalisation and population ageing, which translates into a reduction in the working-age population, the EU needs to increase employment and increase productivity. Mobility and migration can play an important role here. In relation to this, Europe needs to improve skills and better match skills with evolving demands. It also needs to promote labour market participation of older workers and women. Social policies, including pension policies and family policies (for example, child care and long-term care), can support longer working lives and increase employment of women. Promoting social dialogue and the involvement of social partners in the development of employment and social policies may help the implementation and effectiveness of such policies.

The review is available in printed and electronic format in English. All the graphs and tables can be downloaded both in gif and excel format by accessing the individual chapters.

This publication was presented at the #ESDE2015 conference on 21 January 2016.

Table of contents
08/10/2015

Analytical Web Note 6/2015 - High and rising inequalities; what can be done about it (at EU level)?  (08/10/2015)

Catalog N. :KE-BM-15-007-EN-N

This note reviews the main drivers of inequality in the European Union and reflects on what can be done about it at EU level. It explains the distinction between inequalities of opportunities and inequalities of outcomes and discusses how inequality affects growth and the labour market.

This publications is available only in electronic version.

30/04/2015

Pre-retirement saving and the extension of working life - A model based assessment of the impact of low interest rates - Working paper 02/2015  (30/04/2015)

Catalog N. :KE-EW-15-002-EN-N

During the aftermath of the financial crisis, certain paradoxical trends have emerged in Europe. Firstly, despite the context of economic adjustment and restructuring, the employment rate of older workers has increased in most countries, and secondly, saving rates have remained remarkably resilient to the interest rate squeeze pursued by central banks as an economic stimulus. The question arises, whether lower interest rates effectively discourage or rather encourage saving among older workers, or even constitute an incentive to work longer, in case their saving strategy aims at maintaining a standard of living after retirement. The working paper adresses this issue through a model based approach.

01/04/2015

Demographic change, human resources constraints and economic growth - The EU challenge compared to other global players - Working paper 01/2015  (01/04/2015)

Catalog N. :KE-EW-15-001-EN-N

The paper provides a comparative analysis on human resources trends and their implications for employment and economic growth at global scale. Taking stock of specific population characteristics, it focuses on the inescapable challenge of workforce shrinking and its policy implications. The analysis concludes that productivity growth will progressively become the only way to sustain economic growth not only in the EU and several other industrialised regions but also in some of the emerging economies. It also reveals a growing north-south imbalance in terms of labour reserves. While the 2013 publication looked at human resources constrains within the EU, this paper extends to the global context, comparing the EU to other global players.

18/09/2013

Growth potential of EU human resources and policy implications for future economic growth - Working Paper 3/2013  (18/09/2013)

Catalog N. :KE-EW-13-003-EN-N

This working paper analyses the impact of demographic ageing on future employment growth. The analysis shows that some of the economically strongest EU Member States will find themselves confronted with serious employment growth constraints due to labour supply bottlenecks already within the next 5 years, even under extremely optimistic activity assumptions. This paper is available online in English only.