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The Eurozone crisis marked a significant divergence in unemployment trajectories across (groups of) countries, leading on the whole to widening unemployment differentials across the EU. these heterogeneous unemployment paths reflect in a way the different channels via which the crisis was transmitted into different parts of the EU and the different policies that were deployed to redress the resulting economic shocks. This Research Note seeks to analyse how these diverse country experiences played out in the labour markets of the 28 countries of the European Union, relying on a novel application of a standard micro-econometric decomposition technique. The analysis reveals significant variations across countries across a number of dimensions: the extent of exposure to the negative shock of the crisis; the timing and duration of the shock; the degree and pace of recovery afterwards; and, most importantly, the extent and type of labour market adjustments in relation to positive and negative shocks.
This work documents the shares of non-automatable and automatable jobs in 24 European countries over the last three decades. Knowledge of this distribution is important as it reveals the countries, and the demographics within these countries whose employment is the most vulnerable to disappearing because of automation, as well countries who have tended towards substituting labour with automation at a faster rate over the last two decades. The same distribution also reveals the jobs that are likely to stay with us in the future, to the extent that they are non-automatable.
Informal care forms a cornerstone of all long-term care (LTC) systems in Europe and is often seen as a cost-effective way of preventing institutionalisation and enabling users to remain at home. Most recent LTC reform packages have included important components focused on informal carers. The purpose of this study is to explore the range and meaning of policies which ‘formalise’ the role and status of informal carers in a subset of European countries. These schemes, either directed at carers specifically or indirectly through user policies, ‘formalise’ the caregiving role and, to varying extents, treats carers as recognized care providers. The study also attempts to shed light on the relevance of this policy trend for quality of informal care.
This study analyses EU-28 and euro area-level income distribution. More specifically it shows the development of inequality in net disposable incomes over the pre- and post-crisis period (2006‒2014). The analysis shows that income inequality in the EU as a whole was falling up until the crisis and then stabilised afterwards. In the euro area it has increased slightly over the same period.
The 2018 edition of the triennial Pension Adequacy Report analyses how current and future pensions help prevent old-age poverty and maintain the income of men and women for the duration of their retirement.
Volume I is devoted to comparative analysis of pension adequacy in the EU- 28. It examines the current living standards of older people and how they are shaped by pension systems, proceeds with an overview of recent pension reforms and concludes by analysing the main challenges to the adequacy of future pensions and ways of tackling them. Among other issues, the report highlights the gender differences in pension entitlements, the pension adequacy of persons in non-standard or self-employment and the role of supplementary pensions.
Volume II provides a more detailed description of the pension system and pension adequacy in each of the 28 Member States.
This publication is available in English only.