Catalog N. :KE-02-16-632-EN-N
This report addresses the question of whether it is technically, financially and legally feasible to estimate geographic mobility and migration flows in the European Union. The study reviews state-of-the-art methods to measure stocks and flows of migrants using traditional data sources but also new and innovative data sources such as mobile phone data and social media data. It finds that it is indeed feasible to estimate geographic mobility and migration flows in the European Union but that that it depends on several important factors such as access to data, legal obstacles and desired outcomes that are outlined in the paper.
Catalog N. :KE-02-16-631-EN-N
This paper examines the relation between unemployment and cardiovascular disease mortality in EU countries between 2000 and 2010. Two separate studies are summarized and highlight the increase in heart disease and stroke mortality rates as potential outcomes of the greatly extended unemployment rate during this period.
Catalog N. :KE-04-16-541
This study highlights the strong relation between unemployment, especially long-term unemployment, and poor self-perceived health. It shows that unemployment increased bad and very bad self-perceived health in European countries between 2004 and 2013. The longer the duration of unemployment, the stronger is the effect on self-perceived health. The study helps evaluate more comprehensively the impact of the crisis, (long-term) unemployment and inactivity on the health of individuals, thus showing that the labour market situation spills over into other important areas of public policy such as healthcare.
Catalog N. :KE-04-16-365-EN-N
Since the eruption of the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone, substantial efforts have been made to create a new form of governance for the Eurozone that will make the monetary union more robust in absorbing future economic and financial shocks. Much of the drive to adapt the governance of the Eurozone has been influenced by the traditional theory of optimal currency areas (OCA), which stresses the need for flexibility in product and labour markets. As a result, the Eurozone countries have been pushed towards structural reforms that aim to reduce the structural rigidities in product and labour markets. In this paper we ask whether this movement towards structural reform as part of the push for new governance is really going in the right direction. We will argue that this is not the case. The main reason is that the nature of the shocks that have hit the Eurozone does not correspond to the pattern of asymmetric shocks that has been identified by the OCA theory to require more flexibility. We will argue that what is needed in the Eurozone is not more structural reforms but a better mechanism capable of dealing with the classical boom and bust dynamics that are inherent to capitalism.
Catalog N. :KE-BD-15-001-EN-N
Success in raising employment levels and living standards in Europe depends on effective support policies as well as positive macro-economic strategies. In this respect, this year’s Employment and Social Developments review addresses a range of issues.
It starts by looking at the contribution of entrepreneurship and self-employment to job creation and growth and the need to tackle the difficulties faced by the self-employed and notably micro and small companies. It then looks at the role of labour legislation in supporting more and better jobs and the need to strike the right balance between flexibility and protection. It then moves on to look at the best actions to avoid unemployment turning into long-term unemployment and inactivity. More broadly, given technology change, globalisation and population ageing, which translates into a reduction in the working-age population, the EU needs to increase employment and increase productivity. Mobility and migration can play an important role here. In relation to this, Europe needs to improve skills and better match skills with evolving demands. It also needs to promote labour market participation of older workers and women. Social policies, including pension policies and family policies (for example, child care and long-term care), can support longer working lives and increase employment of women. Promoting social dialogue and the involvement of social partners in the development of employment and social policies may help the implementation and effectiveness of such policies.
The review is available in printed and electronic format in English. All the graphs and tables can be downloaded both in gif and excel format by accessing the individual chapters.
This publication was presented at the #ESDE2015 conference on 21 January 2016.
Table of contents
Catalog N. :KE-BO-15-001-EN-N
The 2015 Report of the Social Protection Committee takes stock of recent social policy reforms in the EU. The report sheds light on the key challenges facing EU policymakers in the areas of social inclusion, poverty reduction, Roma inclusion, pensions, health care and long-term care needs, and analyses the reforms introduced to overcome them. It stresses the need for an integrated approach of social protection, covering a citizen’s entire life course, from childbirth and related care through to education, training and employment, family and social life and finally retirement.
This publication is available only in electronic version in English.
Catalog N. :KE-06-14-163-EN-N
This publication reflects the 2015 update of the portfolio of EU social indicators as developed by the Social Protection Committee and especially its Indicators Sub-Group. The indicators aim at monitoring progress towards the EU objectives for social protection and social inclusion. In addition to a list of overarching indicators, four sets of indicators focus on specific topics: social inclusion, pensions, healthcare and long-term care, and child poverty and wellbeing. The lists are continuously being improved as statistics, data collection and policy needs evolve. The indicators are an essential tool to assess the social challenges facing EU countries, identity social trends to watch and support Member States reporting on social policies.
This publications is available only in electronic version.
Catalog N. :KE-EW-15-003-EN-N
This working paper looks at poverty dynamics in Europe. Analysing poverty dynamics, i.e. incorporating time dimension to the analysis, helps to better understand the characteristics and various facets of poverty. In addition to looking at persistent poverty, it is important to look at the probability of exiting and entering poverty in different groups of the population and at poverty trajectories of the poor. This working paper presents empirical evidence on various issues related to poverty dynamics based on EU-SILC longitudinal data spanning from 2008 to 2012.
Catalog N. :KE-BM-15-007-EN-N
This note reviews the main drivers of inequality in the European Union and reflects on what can be done about it at EU level. It explains the distinction between inequalities of opportunities and inequalities of outcomes and discusses how inequality affects growth and the labour market.
This publications is available only in electronic version.
Catalog N. :KE-01-15-673-EN-N
This 2015 edition of the Pension Adequacy Report, published in two volumes, assesses the degree to which pensions manage to provide older people with adequate income and poverty protection. Having examined the role of pensions in current living standards, the report discusses the impact of recent pension reforms, analyses the future risks to adequate old-age incomes and makes suggestions as to how these risks might be addressed by Member States, notably by women and men postponing their retirement by working to higher ages and by saving more. The report also underlines the need for mechanisms to protect those unable to have sufficiently long careers and to save adequately.
While the main report, published as volume I, is devoted to a comparative analysis of pension adequacy at EU-28 level, a detailed discussion of pension adequacy in each of the 28 Member States is given in volume II. This publication is available in electronic format in English only.