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  • 12/07/2018

    Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2018

    The annual Employment and Social Developments in Europe review (ESDE) analyses key employment and social issues for the European Union and its Member States. This year's edition focuses on the changing world of work and its employment and social implications.



    In a context of a shrinking working-age population in the EU, technological innovations that increase productivity become ever more crucial, but they also change the organization of production of goods and services and the world of work. Automation entails capital deepening, especially in the manufacturing sector and for low-skill tasks and routine activities. Other innovative technologies enable the emergence of new non-standard forms of work which allow more flexible re-organization of working time and space. Both capital deepening and new forms of work raise concerns about a possible decrease in standard, socially insured full-time employment, about potential job losses and decreasing job quality. Income inequalities and the gender pay gap are impacted as well and could amplify due to these trends. Atypical work also challenges the organization and financing of social protection mechanisms and the traditional way of representing worker and employer interests in the context of social dialogue.

    However, the changing relationship between labour and capital brings about many new opportunities: innovative technologies increase productivity, create new jobs, facilitate inclusiveness on the labour market, and allow for a better work-life balance. Investments in education and the promotion of skills are key to reaping the benefits and lowering the risks from technological developments. As human and physical capital are complementary, policies which leverage the strong inter-generational effect of individuals' socio-economic background on their skills and labour market performance are of critical importance. Also, traditional distinctions made by the social protection systems need to be rethought in order to provide inclusive protection. Social partners are adapting to the developments in the labour market and could play a positive role in adjusting the existing legal framework to the new forms of work, including by managing the increased flexibility of working time and space in atypical work. The European Pillar of Social Rights provides a useful framework for adapting labour market and social systems to the new world of work to the benefit of the entire EU population.

Related Publications

  • 21/09/2018

    Country articles on the emigration of skilled labour

    These papers from the European centre of expertise in the field of labour law, employment and labour market policies, provide in-depth analysis of the emigration of skilled labour in 13 EU countries (Bulgaria; Croatia; Slovakia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Poland; Portugal and Spain).


  • 21/09/2018

    Teachers and Trainers Matter - How to support them in high-performance apprenticeships and work-based learning

    Have a look at this report for inspiration on how to develop work-based learning and apprenticeships systems. Prepared by the group of experts “ET 2020 Working Group on Vocational Education and Training“, the document highlights 12 policy pointers and inspirational examples to strengthen support for teachers and trainers in the vital role that they play.

  • 13/09/2018

    Mid-term evaluation of the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund

    The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF) provides support to people losing their jobs as a result of major structural changes in world trade patterns due to globalisation, or as a result of the global economic and financial crisis. This reports provides an assessment of the effectiveness, sustainability, efficiency, coherence, relevance, and EU added value of the results achieved by European Globalisation Adjustment Fund EGF in 2014 and 2015.

  • 07/09/2018

    Challenges in long-term care in Europe - A study of national policies 2018

    This Synthesis Report produced by the core team of the European Social Policy Network (ESPN) describes the national long-term care provisions in 35 European countries, with a focus on long-term care arrangements for the elderly (65 or over). It analyses the four main challenges which are common to all European countries: the access and adequacy of long-term care provision, the quality of formal home care as well as residential services, the employment of informal carers, and the financial sustainability of national long-term care systems. The report concludes that the 35 countries covered by the ESPN face and will continue to face significant long-term care system challenges and makes a series of recommendations to help overcome them.


    Country reports

  • 03/08/2018

    Changes in child and family policies in the EU28 in 2017

    This annual thematic report of the European Platform for Investing in Children provides a snapshot of recent changes and new developments in the area of child and family policies across the EU in 2017.


    The report focuses on the situation of vulnerable children (migrant children, children residing in institutions, etc.) and on the key aspects related to socio-economic disadvantage. It highlights the proclamation of the European Pillar of Social Rights as the most significant change in child and family policy in 2017.