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18/12/2014

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014 - Policies for inclusive entrepreneurship in Europe  (18/12/2014)

Catalog N. : KE-02-14-710-EN-N

This publication examines how public policies at national, regional and local levels can support job creation
by encouraging business start-ups and self-employment by people from disadvantaged or under-represented
social groups in entrepreneurship. It shows that there is substantial potential to combat unemployment and
stimulate social inclusion by promoting entrepreneurship in populations such as women, youth, seniors, the
unemployed, and migrants, if the specific problems they face can be addressed and if entrepreneurship
policies are opened up to all. Policy discussion in this report focusses on business creation from
unemployment, entrepreneurship by ethnic minority groups, business development services for start-ups
and the interaction between social security systems and inclusive entrepreneurship policies, and offers the
inspiration of existing good practices from across the European Union.
To order this publication please contact OECD.

27/11/2014

Facing the crisis - The coping strategies of unemployed people in Europe  (27/11/2014)

Catalog N. : KE-04-14-928-EN-N

This report explores how those households that are particularly exposed to poverty and long-term unemployment manage to deal with the blows dealt by the economic crisis. It asks the key questions: is unemployment in a period of crisis really the cause of spiralling breaks in social links, or can it also be the start of a process of coping, based on strengthening those links? If so, to what extent? It draws on the findings of three studies, both qualitatively and quantitatively. This publication is available in printed and electronic format in English.

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16/09/2014

Employment policy beyond the crisis - Social Europe guide - Volume 8  (16/09/2014)

Catalog N. : KE-BC-14-002-EN-C

The Social Europe guide is a bi-annual publication aimed at providing an interested but not necessarily specialised audience with a concise overview of specific areas of EU policy in the field of employment, social affairs and inclusion. It illustrates the key issues and challenges, explains policy actions and instruments at EU level and provides examples of best practices from EU Member States.

Volume 8 looks at EU employment policy, underpinned by the European Employment Strategy. It highlights major initiatives to tackle the disruptive effects of the economic crisis, notably the Europe 2020 Strategy and the European Semester. The guide also covers new initiatives to tackle EU unemployment or social disparities, such as the Employment Package, Youth Employment Package, and the scoreboard of key employment and social indicators. There is also a focus on promoting labour mobility, enhancing dialogue with social partners, and plans to complete Europe’s monetary union by introducing a common fiscal capacity.

The guide will be available in printed and electronic format in English, French and German.

01/07/2014

Stimulating job demand: the design of effective hiring subsidies in Europe - EEPO Review  (01/07/2014)

Catalog N. : KE-AZ-14-001-EN-N

Hiring subsidies are an important measure, extensively used by Member States, to promote employment in disadvantaged-worker categories such as young and older people, the long-term unemployed and women. This review maps out the design of such subsidies, and identifies good and effective practices in targeting, funding, monitoring and integrating incentives with other policies. It is intended as a source of mutual learning and transfer of good practices between Member States.

This publication is available in electronic format in English.

23/06/2014

European Vacancy and Recruitment Report 2014 + Statistical Annex  (23/06/2014)

Catalog N. : KE-02-14-592-EN-N

Low qualified workers encounter increasing difficulties to find a job, face lower job stability and are out-competed by medium-skilled workers even in elementary occupations. In contrast, job opportunities are growing in some high-skilled professions. These are the main findings of the European Vacancy and Recruitment Report 2014. The report also highlights the increase in temporary and part-time work during the crisis and underlines the need to better support school-to-work transitions, to decrease segmentation of the labour markets and to up-skill jobseekers, particularly the low qualified. This report is available in electronic format in English only.

Table of contents

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21/01/2014

Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2013  (21/01/2014)

Catalog N. : KE-BD-13-001-EN-C

This year’s ESDE report offers an in-depth and wide-ranging review of key labour market and social challenges facing the EU as it slowly emerges from recession. Where will Europe’s new jobs come from in an increasingly competitive global economy? Will active inclusion policies support help address rising levels of poverty among those of working age? Will the improvement in the position of women on the labour market during the crisis be sustained or slip away with the recovery? Is the divisive issue of undeclared work being effectively addressed? Will all Member States progress equally, or do the weakest risk falling further behind? Have national social security systems been effective and efficient in maintaining incomes during the recession and in addressing their longer-term goals? Do we need to adapt the ways we measure economic and social progress in order to take proper account of inequalities? The report will be available in printed and electronic format in English. All the graphs and tables can be downloaded both in gif and excel format by accessing the individual chapters.

Table of contents

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There are signs of fragile economic recovery, but economic growth is unlikely to be sustained unless it is inclusive and job rich, especially while labour market and social conditions remain extremely challenging and divergence between countries is growing. The EU is struggling with many challenges such as high unemployment, labour mismatches, and increasing numbers of young people not in education, employment and training. Poverty and social exclusion has increased, especially for the working age population, and household incomes declined. Social expenditure, which had served to offset the effects of the recession in the first phase, was then reduced in the second phase, partly contributing to the weakening of the stabilisation effect of social transfers after 2011. Divergences between countries have been growing, especially within the Euro Area, although all Member States get affected either directly through reduced aggregate demand, erosion of human capital and competitiveness and the undermining of confidence, or indirectly through trade. Persistent divergences between countries may weaken the economic fundamentals of the EU as a whole, and they are a sign that the core objectives of the EU, to benefit all its members and to improve the life of citizens, are not being reached.

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The EU is a strong global economy but, as it emerges from recession, it faces many far-reaching challenges – increasingly specialised trade and production, rapidly evolving technologies, and ever increasing concerns about demographic and environmental challenges. This chapter considers the evidence of where Europe’s new jobs come from, what they will look like in terms of content and skills, and what kind of education, training and support will be required. It foresees growth in high quality jobs that exploit the EU’s comparative advantage, as well as new jobs in the health and care sectors.

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Rising rates of unemployment during the crisis years have resulted in increased levels of poverty among the working age population. This chapter explores whether current safety nets protect those who are out of work from serious and persistent poverty, and whether obtaining a job is likely to be an effective form of escape, given the extent of in-work poverty. It finds that adequate social benefits, whether financial or in kind, need to be combined with appropriate active labour market policy support if a successful and lasting return to the labour market is to be achieved.

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Women have historically faced unfavourable labour market and social outcomes compared to men. The crisis, somewhat unexpectedly, reduced some of the gender gaps given that the male-dominant sectors were hit worse by the crisis. However, fundamental disadvantages remain, with diminished career opportunities, lower pay and lower prospective pensions. Lifetime hours worked remain much lower than those of men, with few Member States succeeding in combining high female employment rates with a low gender gap in total hours worked. Overall, it remains to be seen whether the short-term improvements during the crisis will be sustained, or slip away with the recovery.

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Undeclared work is seen as a divisive social and economic issue, but new survey data suggests that the incidence is little changed from pre-crisis levels. However there are major differences between Member States in terms of overall incidence, with the lack of regular employment and limited welfare support systems being seen as the main explanations in the regions that are most affected. In some countries, though, effective actions have been taken, not only to improve tax compliance, incentives, awareness and sanctions, but also to undertake reforms to regularise occasional and minor jobs.

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Since the crisis, divergences between Member States have grown, especially within the euro area. The chapter shows how the seeds were sown in the early years of the euro, with accumulated debt fuelled by low interest rates, and divergences in productivity and human capital investment. Given the risk of continuing divergence, despite budgetary actions at national level, an enhanced surveillance of employment and social developments has been proposed by the Commission, together with an EMU-wide shock absorption function to complement existing policy coordination instruments in the longer term and after Treaty changes.

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In the early phase of the crisis, social expenditures (unemployment benefits, but also others, notably pensions and health) played an important counter-cyclical role by stabilising household incomes in Europe. Since 2011 and more particularly in 2012, however, that stabilisation has weakened, in a more pronounced manner than during past recessions. The framework developed in this chapter also helps identify situations where the dynamics of different types of social expenditure may not be optimally balanced and investigates in particular whether national welfare systems were effective and efficient in addressing their key social and employment objectives in the crisis, highlighting sometimes major differences.

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The ‘Beyond GDP’ debate has in recent years drawn attention to the need to complement measurement of GDP with indicators that encompass environmental and social aspects of progress. The limitations of GDP as a measure of key societal goals such as well-being and sustainable development are widely recognised, and alternative measurement concepts are being tested and increasingly used for policy making at regional, national and international level. Economic growth is a key component of well-being, via improvement in standards of living, but needs to be sustainable and ensure that the benefits are widely and fairly distributed across society i.e. it needs to be inclusive. To this end, this chapter has explored the kinds of measures that might be used to complement GDP in order to highlight the issue of inclusive growth.

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17/10/2013

ESCO - European Classification of Skills/Competences, Qualifications and Occupations - The first public release - A Europe 2020 initiative  (17/10/2013)

Catalog N. : KE-03-13-496-EN-C

ESCO – boosting job matching throughout Europe European prosperity depends on a flourishing labour market which helps both working people and employers make the most of training and skills. EU citizens have an EU-wide labour market open to them and employers have a pool of people in 28 countries to choose from. However, matching the right worker to the right job remains a challenge. ESCO is a multilingual classification of occupations, skills, competences and qualifications, designed to help jobseekers and employers to match skills to jobs. Learners, workers and businesses will all benefit. ESCO will help everyone get more out of Europe’s labour market. This publication will be available in printed format in English, French and German.

27/05/2013

Advice on apprenticeship and traineeship schemes  (27/05/2013)

Catalog N. : KE-31-13-666-EN-C

The EU is supporting Member States to develop high quality apprenticeship and traineeship programmes to: • make the school-to-work transition easier • equip young people with the right skills and experience for sustainable employment. This publication is available in electronic format in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Polish.

21/05/2013

The European Union explained - Employment and social affairs - Promoting jobs, inclusion and social policy as an investment  (21/05/2013)

Catalog N. : NA-70-12-003-EN-C

This publication is a part of a series that explains what the EU does in different policy areas, why the EU is involved and what the results are. You can see online which ones are available and download them at: http://europa.eu/pol/index_en.htm.

08/01/2013

Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2012  (08/01/2013)

Catalog N. : KE-BD-12-001-EN-C

DG Employment builds on the first Employment and Social Developments in Europe (ESDE) Review in this second edition, by conducting an analysis of the economic and social situation in the EU. Following a year which has seen several Member States witnessing escalating debt crises, public spending is decreasing. With different parts of the EU seeing different social and employment trends, finding the right policy responses in certain key areas is crucial. Long-term employment exclusion, its impact on the labour market and the broader social dimension, is considered in this context. The functioning and efficiency of various social protection systems is also examined, with a particular focus on the effect of distributional and design aspects. Finally, the Review looks at the impact of wage developments and the problem of skill mismatches as well, concluding a fair and equitable structural adjustment agenda is needed. This publication will be available in printed format in English. All the graphs and tables included in this report can be downloaded both in gif and excel format by accessing the individual chapters.

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