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Children's right to participate


Put in place mechanisms that promote children’s participation in decision making that affect their lives

1. AKTION GLASKLAR
Germany, 2006 - still operating

Aktion Glasklar is an intervention program to combat youth drinking in Germany. It was first implemented in the state of Schleswig-Holstein in early 2006 and has since been continued under the leadership of Deutsche Angestellten Krankenkasse (DAK) all throughout Germany. The focus of the program is to interact with students and to actively deter them from consuming alcohol at a young age. Read more...


2. Disordered Eating Prevention Programme
Spain, 2012  - 2014

This programme was implemented in 13 publicly funded schools in Terrassa, a city in the Barcelona metropolitan area of Spain for students aged 13.  The programme consisted of one 90 minute ML session discussing media literacy, critical thinking about the feminine Aesthetic-Beauty Model of extreme thinness, and awareness of historical, cross-cultural and media conceptions of beauty.  Some classes also participated in a 90 minute NUT session discussing nutrition and balanced eating.  Male and female students participated in their usual classroom setting as the programme was delivered in weekly sessions over the course of up to two weeks. Read more...


3. Education Maintenance Allowance
United Kingdom, 1999 - still operating

The Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) is a means-tested conditional cash transfer programme which pays a cash benefit to each student in families with annual incomes of £30,000 or below who remain in school beyond age 16. The program is intended to encourage participation in full-time education.  During the pilot study which was evaluated, the maximum weekly EMA payment was only available to students in families with annual incomes at £13,000 or below, with students in families with incomes between £13,000 and £30,000 receiving proportionately less each week. Students in families with incomes greater than £30,000 per year were not eligible for the programme. A “retention bonus” was also given at the end of each term that the student completed, and an “achievement bonus” was offered to students who successfully completed their course examinations.  The bonuses were not means-tested and were obtainable by all students eligible for the programme.  In the current versions of the programme, the maximum family income has been lowered to £20,351-£20,817 for families with one eligible child and £22,403-£23,077 for families with more than one eligible child, depending on whether they live in Scotland, Northern Ireland, or Wales.  The programme currently applies to students age 16-19.  The retention bonus has been eliminated.  Two achievement bonus payments of £100 are attainable in the Northern Ireland version of the programme but no achievement bonus is offered in the other locations.  Read more...


4. European Drug Abuse Prevention Trial (EU-Dap)
Belgium, Greece, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, 2003 - still operating

The European Drug Abuse Prevention Trial (EU-Dap) is an experimental evaluation of a school-based drug abuse prevention programme conducted in seven EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, and Sweden).

The programme, Unplugged, uses a comprehensive social-influence approach to reduce use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among 12-14 year old students. In the literature, this approach has been repeatedly shown to “reduce onset of use or significantly reduce cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana consumption” among young people (Sussman 2004). Specifically, the Unplugged programme consists of 12 one-hour units taught by classroom teachers who have previously received a 2.5 day training course on the programme material. Read more...


5. Functional Family Therapy
Belgium, Ireland, Norway, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, 2007 - still operating

Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is an evidence-based treatment based on recognition of risk and protective factors involved in the development of conduct problems by children and teenagers. It was founded in the 1970s by James F. Alexander and other researchers at the University of Utah, U.S. FFT is a relatively inexpensive three-phased approach drawing on a multisystemic perspective, starting with engagement and motivation phase aimed at enhancing the perception that change is possible, followed by behaviour change phase improving communication within family and parent behaviour, and concluding by generalisation phase, in which the family learns to utilise the new skills in other situations. The effectiveness of FFT is fairly well established in the U.S. where the treatment led to reduction in typical recidivism rates by 20-30 percent compared to control groups. Read more...


6. Gesunde Kitas – starke Kinder
Germany, 2008 - still operating

The gesunde KITAs – starke Kinder, or Healthy Nursery Centers - Strong Children program’s goal is to fight the childhood obesity epidemic in Germany by prevention, particularly among pre-school children. In order to do so, the program teaches children a mix of balanced nutrition, movement, and relaxation, and also fosters an ongoing health dialogue with parents. As opposed to previous anti-obesity programs, Healthy Nurseries puts a strong emphasis on ex-ante prevention and teaching of a healthy way of living, by connecting and integrating the four project components outlined above. After an initial introductory phase of 12-15 months, the components become part of the center’s daily routine. Final implementation is at the discretion of the program staff at a particular site. Read more...


7. Kiva Antibullying Programme
Finland, 2007 - still operating

The KiVa programme is a school-wide approach to decreasing the incidence and negative effects of bullying on student well-being at school.  The programme’s impact is measured through self and peer-rated reports of bullying, victimization, defending victims, feeling empathy towards victims, bystanders reinforcing bullying behaviour, anxiety, self-esteem, depression, liking school, and academic motivation and performance, among other factors.  The programme is based on the idea that how peer bystanders behave when witnessing bullying plays a critical role in perpetuating or ending the incident.  As a result, the intervention is designed to modify peer attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of bullying.  The programme specifically encourages students to support victimised peers rather than embolden bullying behaviour and, furthermore, provides teachers and parents with information about how to prevent and address the incidence of bullying. Read more...


8. New forest parenting programme
United Kingdom, 1995 - still operating

The New Forest Parenting Programme offers training for parents of children under the age of 3 exhibiting ADHD symptoms. The programme consists of 8 weekly two-hour, one-on-one in-home training sessions for parents to learn about ADHD and how to manage their child’s behaviour. Half of the sessions are for the parent and child together and the rest are for the parent alone.  The programme was originally developed and implemented in Southampton, United Kingdom. The main points of the parental training include routines, countdowns, reminders, voice control, and identifying distractions. Each week builds on the previous week. The content of the 8 home visiting sessions is described as follows in Sonuga-Barke, et al., 2001:

1. Discuss characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, acceptance of child, effectiveness of simple interventions, commanding and retaining attention, and eye contact. Emphasize importance of praise. Introduce behavioural diary.

2. Reinforce message from week 1. Look at diary and discuss parent’s feelings about behaviour during week. Emphasize importance of clear messages, routine, countdowns, reminders, boundaries and limit-setting, and avoiding confrontation.

3. Reinforce messages from previous weeks. Examine diaries and discuss parent’s feelings. Discuss temper tantrums; emphasize firmness and voice control, avoiding threats, and the power of distraction

4. Reinforce messages from previous weeks and ensure that they have been implemented. Introduce concepts of time out and quiet time.

5. Review weeks 1—4, focusing on problems identified and solutions given. Assess parent’s ability to implement strategies. Review diaries, isolate examples, and discuss how parents cope.

6. & 7. Observe parents and children in interaction for 15 minutes. Give feedback to parent on observation especially in relation to quality of interaction. Underline the importance of behavioural techniques discussed and illustrate with examples from the previous weeks.

8. Reinforce messages from previous weeks. Focus on one or two of the key areas of particular concern for each client. Diaries should be used to identify these and to provide examples of good practice. Read more...


9. North Karelia Youth Project
Finland, 1978 - still operating

Practice Overview

The North Karelia Youth Project offered a community and school-based educational intervention for seventh graders (students aged 13) to decrease the social desirability of smoking and coach them to resist peer, adult, and media pressure to smoke. The goal of the program was to decrease the number of children who would start smoking for the first time and reduce all the lifetime exposure to tobacco for all children in the program area. Two versions of the intervention were each implemented at an urban and a rural school in North Karelia County in Finland.

In the first version of the intervention, peer leaders from the eighth and ninth grades (students aged 14 and 15) and program staff delivered 10 sessions of the program.  In the second version, teachers were trained and instructed to deliver 5 sessions of the program.  The program included information about a nutritionally healthy diet and the health hazards of smoking as well as demonstration and role-playing to handle social pressure to smoke. During the time of the school intervention, a community intervention for adults was taking place through mass media channels and community organizations.

A second North Karelia Youth Project involving smoking, alcohol abuse, exercise and nutrition was implemented subsequently, and a description of that program can be found in the user registry. Read more...


10. Prevention of Smoking in adolescents with Lower Education
Netherlands, 2012 - still operating

This intervention was based on peer group pressure and social influence to prevent smoking.  The intervention focused on students in junior secondary education (this is what is meant by ‘lower education’ in the title) and was implemented in twenty six schools throughout the Netherlands. It consisted of three lessons on knowledge, attitudes, and social influence, followed by a class agreement not to start or to stop smoking for five months and a class based competition. Admission to the competition was dependent on having a class with less than 10% smokers after five months. The intervention is similar to the Smokefree Class Competition programme implemented across 22 European countries. The authors added some lessons on attitude and social influence. Two extra video lessons on smoking and social influence were available as an optional extra during these five months. Researchers approached these schools directly and gave them a brief explanation about the intervention in order to motivate them to participate. Eighteen schools agreed to do so. The other eight schools (26 in total) were recruited through four other community health services that approached the schools themselves. Baseline data was obtained through questionnaires administered directly to the students. Data for background characteristics was also obtained through these questionnaires. The Dutch National Institute against Smoking (Stivoro) and The Dutch National Institute on mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos Institute) developed and conducted the intervention together with the schools. Stivoro looked at the adherence of schools to the intervention protocol, and collected the registration forms and other documents.  Evaluation was conducted by the authors of this paper. Read more...


11. School-based Alcohol Education Programme
Germany

The school-based alcohol education was designed to change knowledge, attitudes and intentions toward underage alcohol use and abuse in middle school students.  The programme was implemented in seventh grade classes of students between 12 and 15 years old at 16 secondary schools near Hamburg in the Schleswig-Holstein region of Germany in 2006. The programme consisted of four interactive class lessons, a booklet for students and a booklet for parents.  Teachers participated in a three hour training session about the content of the intervention and the intended delivery structure.  Over a three month period, teachers were to distribute a booklet containing information about alcohol and consequences of alcohol use including violence, dependence, medical and economic effects to students and a booklet containing general information about alcohol, interactions with children and behaving as role models to the students’ parents.  Over the same period, teachers were to teach four class lessons, on the following subjects: legal requirements, advertisement, dealing with peer pressure, and acceptable contexts for alcohol.

 

Last updated: March 2014 Read more...


12. Social Influence Decision-Making Smoking Prevention Program
Netherlands, 1990  - 2013

The Social Influence Decision-Making (SI-DM) smoking prevention program was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself.  The program aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking.   Read more...


13. Social Influence Plus Boosters Smoking Prevention Program
Netherlands, 2012 - still operating

The Social Influence Plus Boosters (SI+) smoking prevention program was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself.

The program aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking.  

  Read more...


14. Social Influence Smoking Prevention Program
Netherlands, Romania, 1990  - 2013

The Social Influence (SI) smoking prevention program was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself.  The program aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking. Read more...


15. SolSano
Spain, 1999 - still operating

SolSano is a health education programme for sun safety implemented in primary schools in Spain. The programme has been in operation since 1999. It targets children in grades 1 and 2 (aged 6-8). The overall aim of the programme is to educate children about sun safety in order to teach children to enjoy the sun while reducing its harmful effects. The programme consists of a guide for teachers, an activity notebook for students, and a pamphlet with information on sun protection activities for children directed to their parents. Read more...


16. Sun Healthy Habits
Spain, 2009  - 2009

The ‘Sun healthy habits’ study aimed to evaluate the effects of using an Internet-based school intervention programme to improve sun exposure knowledge and behaviour among Spanish adolescent population. The ‘Sun healthy habits’ website was developed by the Study Committee (dermatologists, epidemiologists and specialists in education) and was structured in six sections: (i) the sun and its characteristics; (ii) sun without danger; (iii) seven sun commandments; (iv) games; (v) visits to other Webs and (vi) Who are we? The selection of content was informed by knowledge gained in a previously conducted cross-sectional study on incorrect sun habits in the population. Read more...


17. Talk About Alcohol
United Kingdom

Talk About Alcohol is an intervention developed in the UK for helping children age 11-18 make informed decisions about alcohol.  It carries the same name as a pilot website developed in 2005 by the European Association of Communication Agencies (EACA) with the European Forum for Responsible Drinking), which was based on a programme originally developed in Sweden, however the UK Talk About Alcohol programme, developed by The Alcohol Education trust Charity is fundamentally different from the European initiative.  The programme is inspired by SHARHP (Australia) and EUDAP Unplugged (EU), social norms approaches and life skills education.  Talk About Alcohol is provided through schools in the United Kingdom by the Alcohol Education Trust, who support teachers, students, and their parents with resources on line and in print. The programme gives teachers materials and tools designed to encourage students to make informed decisions and rehearse strategies for challenging situations regarding alcohol use, while delaying the age of first drinking, encouraging responsible drinking behaviours, and reducing the acceptability of drinking to get drunk.  The school lessons focus on alcohol health knowledge, developing self-esteem and life skills, and learning to resist peer pressure by using example scenarios, games and role-playing.  The resources provided include  Read more...


18. Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents
Norway, United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, 1995 - still operating

The Treatment Foster Care Oregon (TFCO-A, formerly named Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care; MTFC), known as the Intensive Fostering programme in England, is designed for youth age 10-17 who are at risk of going into residential care or being incarcerated due to their serious emotional or behavioural problems.

Youths with an IQ above 70 who have been found to be in need of an out-of-home placement due to severe delinquency, criminal or antisocial behaviour are eligible for the programme whether they currently live at home with their families or in a foster or group care placement. Upon referral to the programme, the programme recommends either identifying the family with whom the youth will reside long-term after programme completion, or specifying the goal of independent living for the youth.  The youth is then assigned to a placement with a local TFCO-A trained foster carer.    

The TFCO-A programme consists of a daily routine of positive reinforcement through mentoring and encouragement within a clear structure, specified boundaries and consequences for behaviour, and close supervision.  On a weekly basis during the programme, the team of therapists designs and oversees the child’s treatment plan in a coordinated way with the child and his or her assigned TFCO-A foster parents.  Individual, professional therapists on the TFCO-A team work with each child to manage his or her feelings and behaviour and a skills coach on the team helps the child with social skills and positive recreational activities. The TFCO-A family therapist meets weekly with the child’s biological parents or the family with which the youth desires to live after completing the programme. TFCO-A foster parents receive 20 hours of training in strategies to promote positive behaviour and for limit-setting for problem behaviour, so that they can monitor the child’s behaviour daily and create an environment for the child as directed by the TFCO-A team’s Programme Supervisor on a week-to-week basis. The child’s school teacher fills out a daily card indicating the child’s full attendance for the school day. The TFCO-A foster parent also assigns points to the child for positive behaviours like completing chores and getting to school on time, and removes points if the child misbehaves or fails to complete tasks for which he or she is responsible. If the child successfully progresses through the program and the identified long-term placement parents participate in family therapy to learn parent management strategies, in 9-12 months they may exit the programme and move back in with their parents or previously identified alternative carers.  

The programme model was first implemented in Oregon in the USA in 1983 by Patricia Chamberlain, and it is currently also operating in the UK since 2002, Sweden since 2001, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands since the early-mid 2000’s. The programme founders are incorporated as TFC Consultants, Inc.  

 Read more...


19. Örebro Prevention Program
Sweden, Netherlands, 1995 - still operating

The Örebro Prevention Program (currently known as EFFEKT) works through parents and by targeting drinking among 13–16-year-olds (i.e. Junior high school pupils in grades 7–9). The 2.5-year programme, which was designed in Örebro County, Sweden, has been funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This has been part of its initiative for universal youth alcohol prevention programmes, which are to be implemented community-wide; target youths at ages during which drinking increases; work in both urban and rural communities; make use of existing community resources; and bring together different agencies and relevant parties.

The programme design and implementation were largely based on empirical findings demonstrating a negative correlation between levels of youth alcohol drinking and (i) the strictness levels of parental attitudes against youth alcohol consumption as well as (ii) the level of youth involvement in structured, adult-led activities. Thus, the core of the programme has been based on parents receiving information (by mail and during parent meetings at the schools) encouraging them to maintain strict attitudes against youth alcohol use as well as encouraging their youth’s involvement in adult-led, organized activities. The programme was designed to be implemented in both urban and rural areas. Read more...


Support the participation of all children in play, recreation, sport and cultural activities

20. Aprender em Parceria (A PAR)
Portugal, 2007 - still operating

The Aprender em Parceria (A PAR) Programme is an early childhood intervention and parenting support programme (complementing crèche or nursery education). A PAR uses parents as a starting point to develop and recognise their own skills and potential, so as to contribute to the process of adult empowerment. Read more...


21. Programa Juego
Spain, 1992 - still operating

Programa Juego (Play Program) for preschool children is a cooperative-creative play program designed to support creative thinking in children 4 to 6 years old.  The program consists of a once-weekly 75-minute play session which is directed by the children’s regular teacher.  During the session, the teacher promotes creative thinking, cooperation among children, and the importance of experimentation.  The 24-session program is manualized with defined games, instructions for the teacher, and suggested questions to promote debate after the games conclude.  There are a total of four Play programs, additionally including the Play program for children 6-8 years, 8-10 years, and 10-12 years, however only the preschool program is described here.  The program has been in operation since 1992 in various regions of Spain. Read more...


22. SolSano
Spain, 1999 - still operating

SolSano is a health education programme for sun safety implemented in primary schools in Spain. The programme has been in operation since 1999. It targets children in grades 1 and 2 (aged 6-8). The overall aim of the programme is to educate children about sun safety in order to teach children to enjoy the sun while reducing its harmful effects. The programme consists of a guide for teachers, an activity notebook for students, and a pamphlet with information on sun protection activities for children directed to their parents. Read more...


23. Sun Healthy Habits
Spain, 2009  - 2009

The ‘Sun healthy habits’ study aimed to evaluate the effects of using an Internet-based school intervention programme to improve sun exposure knowledge and behaviour among Spanish adolescent population. The ‘Sun healthy habits’ website was developed by the Study Committee (dermatologists, epidemiologists and specialists in education) and was structured in six sections: (i) the sun and its characteristics; (ii) sun without danger; (iii) seven sun commandments; (iv) games; (v) visits to other Webs and (vi) Who are we? The selection of content was informed by knowledge gained in a previously conducted cross-sectional study on incorrect sun habits in the population. Read more...


24. TigerKids
Germany, 2014 - still operating

The ‘‘TigerKids’’ intervention programme was developed to enhance regular physical activity and to modify habits of food and drink consumption in preschool children. The objectives of the programme are threefold: a) to increase physical activity games at the Kindergarten setting to at least 30 min/day; b) to replace high energy density snack foods with fresh fruit and vegetables and establish consumption of at least two portions/day of vegetables and fruits as a habit; c) to replace sugared beverages with water or other non-sugared drinks (e.g. non-sugared fruit tea) in the day care and reaching a habitual consumption of not more than one glass/day of sugared drinks and juices. Read more...


25. Örebro Prevention Program
Sweden, Netherlands, 1995 - still operating

The Örebro Prevention Program (currently known as EFFEKT) works through parents and by targeting drinking among 13–16-year-olds (i.e. Junior high school pupils in grades 7–9). The 2.5-year programme, which was designed in Örebro County, Sweden, has been funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This has been part of its initiative for universal youth alcohol prevention programmes, which are to be implemented community-wide; target youths at ages during which drinking increases; work in both urban and rural communities; make use of existing community resources; and bring together different agencies and relevant parties.

The programme design and implementation were largely based on empirical findings demonstrating a negative correlation between levels of youth alcohol drinking and (i) the strictness levels of parental attitudes against youth alcohol consumption as well as (ii) the level of youth involvement in structured, adult-led activities. Thus, the core of the programme has been based on parents receiving information (by mail and during parent meetings at the schools) encouraging them to maintain strict attitudes against youth alcohol use as well as encouraging their youth’s involvement in adult-led, organized activities. The programme was designed to be implemented in both urban and rural areas. Read more...