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Access to adequate resources


Access to adequate resources

1. Working Families Tax Credit
United Kingdom, 1999  - 2003

Since 1971 the United Kingdom has had a system called the Family Credit, which is
designed to alleviate the tax burden on working families. Policy makers desired
to strengthen the link between this income support and working, as well as to
make the benefit more generous, so in 1999, the Working Families’ Tax Credit
(WFTC) replaced the Family Credit.
 Read more...


Provide for adequate living standards through a combination of benefits

2. Education Maintenance Allowance
United Kingdom, 1999 - still operating

The Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) is a means-tested conditional cash transfer programme which pays a cash benefit to each student in families with annual incomes of £30,000 or below who remain in school beyond age 16. The program is intended to encourage participation in full-time education.  During the pilot study which was evaluated, the maximum weekly EMA payment was only available to students in families with annual incomes at £13,000 or below, with students in families with incomes between £13,000 and £30,000 receiving proportionately less each week. Students in families with incomes greater than £30,000 per year were not eligible for the programme. A “retention bonus” was also given at the end of each term that the student completed, and an “achievement bonus” was offered to students who successfully completed their course examinations.  The bonuses were not means-tested and were obtainable by all students eligible for the programme.  In the current versions of the programme, the maximum family income has been lowered to £20,351-£20,817 for families with one eligible child and £22,403-£23,077 for families with more than one eligible child, depending on whether they live in Scotland, Northern Ireland, or Wales.  The programme currently applies to students age 16-19.  The retention bonus has been eliminated.  Two achievement bonus payments of £100 are attainable in the Northern Ireland version of the programme but no achievement bonus is offered in the other locations.  Read more...


3. Outcomes of the 2006-2007 parental leave policy change in Germany
Germany, 2007 - still operating

This study investigates how a 2007 change in parental leave policy in Germany has affected return- to-work and labour market outcomes of mothers of new-born children. In January 2007 the German parental leave benefit system changed from being means tested to earnings-tested. In practice this meant that before the reform families received a means tested transfer of 300 euro/month for a maximum of 24 months; after the reform this amount depended on the earnings of the parent prior to birth, and was paid of a maximum of 12 to 14 months. The study described here investigates the outcome of this change by comparing 993 families who fell under the new system because their child was born in the first quarter of 2007, with 851 families who did not fall under the new system because their child was born in the last quarter of 2006. All families were selected from of a random 1% sample of the population living in Germany (the German Microsensus). The two groups were compared on the employment status of the mothers in the first and second year after birth. An additional analysis estimated what the effect would have been if additional child care for very young children would have been available at low costs. Read more...


4. Smoking Cessation Counseling by Midwives
Netherlands, 2012 - still operating

This smoking cessation program was available to pregnant women smokers in two provinces of the Netherlands.  Midwives from 21 midwife practices were trained on how to approach the subject of smoking and smoking cessation with their clients and supplied with a brief manual and intervention card explaining the seven-step protocol for effective counseling.  The seven-step protocol includes identifying smoking behavior in the client and her partner, providing information on the short-term advantages of not smoking, discussing barriers to quitting, goal setting, providing self-help materials, agreeing on aftercare, and then following up at 8 months gestation.  Midwives in the intervention gave pregnant women smokers a video, a self-help manual and a booklet for their partner about non-smoking and health counseling, in addition to a general folder from the Dutch Smoking and Health Foundation which is available online to all Dutch women beginning a pregnancy.   All intervention materials were delivered upon the pregnant smoker’s first visit to her midwife.   Read more...


5. Working Families Tax Credit
United Kingdom, 1999  - 2003

Since 1971 the United Kingdom has had a system called the Family Credit, which is
designed to alleviate the tax burden on working families. Policy makers desired
to strengthen the link between this income support and working, as well as to
make the benefit more generous, so in 1999, the Working Families’ Tax Credit
(WFTC) replaced the Family Credit.
 Read more...


Support parents’ participation in the labour market

6. Outcomes of parental leave policy changes in Austria
Austria, 1990 - present

Three changes in parental leave relating to the length of leave and the length of time to which parents were entitled to benefits were implemented in Austria in 1990, 1996 and 2000. The first policy change, implemented on July 1, 1990, extended the maximum duration of both cash benefits and job protection from the child’s first to the child’s second birthday. The second policy change, implemented on July 1, 1996, reduced the maximum duration of cash benefits to the date when the child turns 18 months old, keeping job protection unchanged. The third policy change, implemented on July 1, 2000, increased the maximum duration of cash benefits to the date when the child turns 30 months old, again keeping job protection unchanged. Read more...


7. Outcomes of the 2006-2007 parental leave policy change in Germany
Germany, 2007 - still operating

This study investigates how a 2007 change in parental leave policy in Germany has affected return- to-work and labour market outcomes of mothers of new-born children. In January 2007 the German parental leave benefit system changed from being means tested to earnings-tested. In practice this meant that before the reform families received a means tested transfer of 300 euro/month for a maximum of 24 months; after the reform this amount depended on the earnings of the parent prior to birth, and was paid of a maximum of 12 to 14 months. The study described here investigates the outcome of this change by comparing 993 families who fell under the new system because their child was born in the first quarter of 2007, with 851 families who did not fall under the new system because their child was born in the last quarter of 2006. All families were selected from of a random 1% sample of the population living in Germany (the German Microsensus). The two groups were compared on the employment status of the mothers in the first and second year after birth. An additional analysis estimated what the effect would have been if additional child care for very young children would have been available at low costs. Read more...


8. Promoting Paternal Parental Leave
Sweden, 2002 - still operating

Sweden has implemented several reforms to their parental leave policy, with the aim of increasing the sharing of parental leave among mothers and fathers. Since 1974, Swedish parents have been able to take up to six months of paid leave after the birth of a child under the country’s parental leave insurance. The pay was equivalent to 90-percent of the parent’s earnings or was set at a flat rate if the parent had no prior earnings. Initially, parents could share this leave time as they preferred (i.e., one parent could take six months leave, both parents could take three months leave, or some other combination adding up to six months). By the 1990s, the allotted time had been extended to twelve months paid leave based on earnings and an additional three months paid at a flat rate. From the mid-nineties through 2008, Sweden enacted several additional reforms to parental leave insurance aimed at encouraging more gender equality in leave time among fathers and mothers. In 1995, one month of leave was reserved for each parent (i.e., if a given parent chose not to use his or her month of leave, that month was forfeited and the other parent could take only eleven months of leave). In 2002, this reserved leave was extended to two months per parent. Also in 2002, however, the full amount of leave time was increased to sixteen months (thirteen months at the earnings-related rate plus three months at a flat rate). This implied that although an additional month was reserved for each parent, the other parent could still take up to fourteen months of leave (Duvander and Johansson, 2010). Read more...


9. Working Families Tax Credit
United Kingdom, 1999  - 2003

Since 1971 the United Kingdom has had a system called the Family Credit, which is
designed to alleviate the tax burden on working families. Policy makers desired
to strengthen the link between this income support and working, as well as to
make the benefit more generous, so in 1999, the Working Families’ Tax Credit
(WFTC) replaced the Family Credit.
 Read more...