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Työllisyyden ja sosiaalisen kehityksen analyysit

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28/11/2016

Working paper 2/2016 - The coverage rate of income support measures in the EU: measurement and challenges  (28/11/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-EW-16-002-EN-N

Coverage, or the capacity to reach persons in need, is an important element of the effectiveness of social protection schemes. This paper deals with the measurement of coverage rates for income support schemes aimed at replacing the lack of primary income for the working age population, focusing on unemployment benefits and minimum income support.

27/10/2016

Labour Market and Wage Developments in Europe - Annual Review 2016  (27/10/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-BN-16-001-EN-N

The Labour Market and Wage Developments in Europe report analyses the labour market from a macroeconomic perspective. It provides an analysis of recent employment and wage developments, looking at the euro area and the EU as a whole in comparison with its global trading partners. The 2016 edition shows that job creation continued to progress in 2015 and 2016 and analyses the reasons behind this improvement. The report also focuses on the macroeconomic implications of statutory minimum wages in the EU and surveys the institutional minimum wage setting mechanisms in place in EU Member States.

19/10/2016

Updating of the Labour Market Model  (19/10/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-06-16-072-EN-N

The aim of this study is to allow the Commission to update the calibration and further operationalize the existing Labour Market Model. This model has been set up by external experts in order to improve the European Commission’s understanding of transmission mechanisms of labour market policies in the context of the European Employment Strategy. The Labour Market Model is used to provide a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying the possible direction and intensity of the effects of labour market policies. It uses actual economic data to estimate how an economy might react to changes in labour market policies or other policy reforms or external factor.

07/09/2016

How are refugees faring on the labour market in Europe? Working Paper 1/2016  (07/09/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-01-16-824-EN-N

This paper is a joint effort by the OECD and the European Commission to make a first evaluation of the situation on refugees on the labour market. It is based on the 2014 EU Labour Force Survey. Available evidence confirms that refugees are one of the most vulnerable groups when it comes to labour market integration but show however, significant differences across European countries.

20/07/2016

The impact of unemployment on heart disease and stroke mortality in European Union countries  (20/07/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-02-16-631-EN-N

This paper examines the relation between unemployment and cardiovascular disease mortality in EU countries between 2000 and 2010. Two separate studies are summarized and highlight the increase in heart disease and stroke mortality rates as potential outcomes of the greatly extended unemployment rate during this period.

20/07/2016

Inferring migrations: traditional methods and new approaches based on mobile phone, social media, and other big data  (20/07/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-02-16-632-EN-N

This report addresses the question of whether it is technically, financially and legally feasible to estimate geographic mobility and migration flows in the European Union. The study reviews state-of-the-art methods to measure stocks and flows of migrants using traditional data sources but also new and innovative data sources such as mobile phone data and social media data. It finds that it is indeed feasible to estimate geographic mobility and migration flows in the European Union but that that it depends on several important factors such as access to data, legal obstacles and desired outcomes that are outlined in the paper.

20/07/2016

Duration of unemployment and self-perceived health in Europe  (20/07/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-04-16-541

This study highlights the strong relation between unemployment, especially long-term unemployment, and poor self-perceived health. It shows that unemployment increased bad and very bad self-perceived health in European countries between 2004 and 2013. The longer the duration of unemployment, the stronger is the effect on self-perceived health.  The study helps evaluate more comprehensively the impact of the crisis, (long-term) unemployment and inactivity on the health of individuals, thus showing that the labour market situation spills over into other important areas of public policy such as healthcare.

28/06/2016

EU Employment and Social Situation - Quarterly Review – Summer 2016  (28/06/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-BH-16-002-EN-N

The review confirms an increase of the overall employment rate, for both the EU and the euro area – an increase representing 3 million more employed people in the EU than one year before. The overall long-term unemployment rate, at the other hand, decreased by 0.6 pp compared to a year before and stands now at 4.3% of the labour force. This is the largest reduction since the first decline in long-term unemployment observed in 2014. In addition, for the first time since the start of the economic recovery, the number of very long-term unemployed (unemployed over two years) dropped more strongly than the number of people long-term unemployed for less than two years. Finally, this season's edition also shows a continuous improvement and convergence among Member States regarding youth unemployment, which has decreased more strongly in countries most affected by the crisis.

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See also: Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2015

25/04/2016

Flexibility versus Stability - A difficult tradeoff in the Eurozone  (25/04/2016)

Catalog N. :KE-04-16-365-EN-N

Since the eruption of the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone, substantial efforts have been made to create a new form of governance for the Eurozone that will make the monetary union more robust in absorbing future economic and financial shocks. Much of the drive to adapt the governance of the Eurozone has been influenced by the traditional theory of optimal currency areas (OCA), which stresses the need for flexibility in product and labour markets. As a result, the Eurozone countries have been pushed towards structural reforms that aim to reduce the structural rigidities in product and labour markets. In this paper we ask whether this movement towards structural reform as part of the push for new governance is really going in the right direction. We will argue that this is not the case. The main reason is that the nature of the shocks that have hit the Eurozone does not correspond to the pattern of asymmetric shocks that has been identified by the OCA theory to require more flexibility. We will argue that what is needed in the Eurozone is not more structural reforms but a better mechanism capable of dealing with the classical boom and bust dynamics that are inherent to capitalism.

12/04/2016

EU Employment and Social Situation - Quarterly Review – Spring 2016  (12/04/2016)

Catalog N. :KEBH16001ENN

The activity rate in the EU has continued its steady increase since 2008, in particular for older people, though not yet for younger people, as highlighted by this edition of the Employment and Social Situation Quarterly Review. Employment rate has returned to its pre-crisis level but with a much wider gap between countries, from 55% in Greece to 80% in Estonia, Germany and Sweden. The publication also stresses that permanent and full-time jobs continue to increase, though at a slower pace than in 2014. The financial situation of EU households continues to improve, with more available income in nearly all Member States, though financial distress remains high for households with the lower income. 

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See also: Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2015

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