Old-age pensions are intended to ensure an income for old age.
The pension system comprises an earnings-related pension (työeläke) and a national pension (kansaneläke).
All entrepreneurs and employees working in Finland receive an earnings-related pension.
Those who have not worked and those whose earnings-related pension is small, receive a national pension.
All senior citizens are guaranteed the minimum pension level as a guarantee pension (takuueläke).
Since January 2017, the retirement age has been raised by 3 months annually until to reach 65 years by 2027. After that, the retirement age will be linked to life expectancy.
The retirement age is:
The retirement age of persons born in 1965 and later will be adjusted with the life expectancy which will be determined at the age of 62 years.
You can fill in the earnings-related pension application electronically or in paper form, and take it to a pension provider or a Kela office. Earnings-related pensions are usually provided by the pension provider you were last insured with. Providers of earnings-related pensions are, in the private sector, pension insurance companies, company pension funds, and industry-wide pension funds, and in the public sector, Keva and the Government of Åland.
Earnings-related pensions accrue 1.5 per cent of your annual earned income.
National pension can be claimed if a person has no earnings-related pension, or if their earnings-related pension is small.
National pensions are granted and paid by Kela. A requirement for claiming the national pension is that the claimant has lived in Finland for at least three years after turning 16. Insurance time accrued in other EU/EEA countries can be taken into consideration for fulfilling the residence period requirement, as long as at least one year of the required period has been spent in Finland.
The general retirement age for the national pension is 65 years. You can begin to claim your national pension at the age of 63, this is referred to as early old-age pension. In Finland the national pension amount depends on how long you have lived in Finland between the ages of 16 and 65.
Additionally, the amount of pension you receive is affected by your family relations and other ongoing pension incomes. National pension can be applied for with the same application as the earnings-related pension, either electronically or with a paper form. In certain situations a verbal application is also possible.
A guaranteed pension is a minimum pension which safeguards the income of those who have turned 65 (or 63 for those claiming early old-age pension) and who only receive a small pension.
It is only paid to people living in Finland. If other pension incomes remain below the minimum level, the remaining amount will be paid as a guaranteed pension. In order to receive a guaranteed pension, the claimant must be claiming all other pensions they have the right to claim.
A guaranteed pension can be applied for by telephone or with a paper form.
The amount of earnings-related pensions depends on the duration of your employment and your earnings; no upper limit is set for pensions.
You can estimate the amount of pension you will receive by using the Pension calculator, for example.
The amount of national pension you receive is affected by how long you have lived in Finland and your earnings-related pension, as well as whether you live alone or are married.
Pensions are taxable income.
Find out how much national pension and guaranteed pension you can claim on Kela's website.
If you have worked in multiple member states, you should claim your pension from your state of residence.
You can find out more information about your rights via the links below.
The websites are not maintained by the European Commission and they do not represent the Commission's views.
The Commission's publication and website: