Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion

Czech Republic - Old-age pensions

In what situation can I claim?

Old-age pensions (starobní důchod) are the basic benefit intended to secure the basic needs of the elderly. These are paid on a monthly basis from the moment such pension is granted until death. 99% of all persons collect such a pension once they reach the stipulated age.

Two basic eligibility conditions must be met to recognise and pay out an old-age pension:

  • the person has reached retirement age (důchodový věk);
  • the person has made the required number of years of pension insurance contributions.

Pension insurance (důchodové pojištění) is compulsory for the vast majority of working residents in the Czech Republic. Exceptions include income from some professions (royalties) exempted from the insurance scheme.

Retirement age, the number of insured years and the pension amount all vary from person to person. Factors that play a role include:

  • year of birth;
  • gender;
  • number of children;
  • amount of income.

An early old-age pension (předčasný starobní důchod) is a form of old-age pension. Applicants who have not reached retirement age but who want to retire are eligible. However this benefit has age limits as well.

The amount paid out in the case of early retirement is much lower. The applicant's pension in this case is permanently reduced.

What conditions do I need to meet?

Old-age pension

Retirement age

Reaching retirement age is the primary eligibility condition for an old-age pension. The retirement age depends on the person's date of birth, gender and number of children.

For persons born before 1936:

Gender and number of children

Retirement age

Men (number of children plays no role)

60

Women with no children

57

Women with one child

56

Women with two children

55

Women with three or four children

54

Women with five or more children

53

The retirement age threshold rises steadily for persons born between 1936 and 1971. The increase differs for every category. Differences between gender and numbers of children are progressively levelling off.

An exact table can be found on the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Ministerstvo práce a sociálních věcí) website. A calculator is also available to help with an individual calculation of retirement age.

A simple example is provided below. The resulting values show retirement age for the given category.

Year of birth

1950

Year of birth

1960

Year of birth

1971

Men

62 years, 6 months

64 years, 2 months

65

Women with no children

61

64 years, 2 months

65

Women with one child

59 years, 8 months

63 years, 8 months

65

Women with two children

58 years, 4 months

62 years, 2 months

65

Women with three or four children

57

60 years, 8 months

65

Women with five or more children

55 years, 8 months

59 years, 2 months

64 years, 8 months

The retirement age for all persons born after 1971 is 65 years in  all categories.

Insured period

The minimum insured period continues to increase for young people. The year in which a person reaches retirement age is decisive in determining the minimum insured period to determine eligibility for an old-age pension.

Reached retirement age

Minimum number of insured years*

Before 2010

25

In 2012

28

In 2016

32

After 2018

35

* The table does not include all options and a comprehensive overview is available on the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs website.

The minimum insured period will remain 35 years after 2018.

The principle of aggregation is applied within the EU, the EEA and Switzerland. The insured periods received according to the legislation in these countries are included in the calculation of the minimum required insured period.

Early old-age pension

An applicant must:

  • meet the minimum number of insured years (just as in the case of an old-age pension);
  • meet the defined age limit;
  • not carry out  gainful activity.

The age category for early retirement is defined in two categories:

If the insured person's retirement age is less than 63, such person can only receive an early old-age pension up to three years early.

If the insured person's retirement age is more than 63, such person can only receive an early old-age pension up to five years early and only after reaching the age of 60.

Example:

Retirement age of insured person

Option to take early retirement

62

59

63

60

65

60

A person's earnings during early retirement are restricted. Such a person cannot be employed or receive unemployment benefits.

What am I entitled to and how can I claim?

Old-age pension

This pension is paid monthly and is made up of two components:

  • a basic amount;
  • a percentage amount.

The basic amount is a fixed sum for all pensions. This amount is CZK 2,700 per month in 2018.

The percentage amount is defined individually. The calculation is relatively complicated and is performed by Czech Social Security Administration (ČSSZ) staff.

The amount is based on the number of insured years and the applicant's average earnings from the age of 18 (from 1986 onwards) until the year before retirement. Older incomes are increased in order to reflect current price levels. The resulting value is the assessment base.

This is used to define the personal assessment base in which higher average earnings are decreased using a percentage.

Applicants are also entitled to a percentage amount of 1.5% of the calculation base for every paid year of insurance contributions.

The minimum percentage amount is set at CZK 770. The minimum old-age pension in the Czech Republic is:

Basic amount

Percentage amount

Minimum old-age pension

CZK 2,700

CZK 770

CZK 3,470

Individual old-age pension amounts can be calculated using the pension calculators of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.

Persons who reach retirement age and want to continue working can:

  • work and not receive an old-age pension; work and receive half of their old-age pension;
  • work and receive their entire old-age pension.

In  all cases their old-age pension continues to grow given the fact they are continuing to pay insurance contributions.

There are a number of situations in which an old-age pension is calculated using a different method, for instance if the applicant has received an invalidity pension before reaching retirement age.

The law also entitles persons to receive an old-age pension who have reached a retirement age that is five years more than the defined retirement age for men given their date of birth if they do not have the required number of years of paid insurance contributions (called a proportional old-age pension).

Detailed explanations of these situations and pension calculations can be found in the Pension Insurance Act and on the Czech Social Security Administration website.

Early old-age pension

The calculation of this benefit is identical to that of an old-age pension. The basic amount is set at CZK 2,700 and the percentage amount is calculated identically.

The calculation base is then decreased for every 90 days that the applicant is missing from the early retirement date to the actual retirement age. The earlier the retirement, the greater the reduction in benefits.

An example of such reduction compared with an ordinary pension:

A man takes early retirement on 1 December 2010, three years before reaching retirement age. His average income (personal assessment base) is CZK 13,107.

The man retires early on 1 December 2010.

CZK 7,790

Indexing of early retirement on 1 December 2013

CZK 8,317

Old-age pension that the man would normally have received on 1 December 2013

CZK 10,709

Where and how to apply

Old-age and early old-age pensions are applied for in person at Czech Social Security Administration offices (pobočky České správy sociálního zabezpečení).

Applications can be submitted four months prior to entitlement to the pension. Czech Social Security Administration staff will calculate the pension amount based on the applicant's specific situation.

The documentation that must be furnished with the application can be found on the relevant Czech Social Security Administration website.

Work records must be provided in specific cases if the Czech Social Security Administration does not have relevant records on past work activities. Photocopies of compensatory sheets, payslips, proof of taxable income, etc. can be used in such cases.

Jargon busters

  • The basic amount (základní výměra) is a fixed pension component. This amount is CZK 2,700 in 2018.
  • The percentage amount (procentní výměra) is the floating portion of the pension that is defined for every applicant individually. This amount is based on income since 1986 and the number of years of pension insurance.
  • Retirement age (důchodový věk) is the age at which an individual person can apply for an old-age pension. This age is defined by gender, number of children and year of birth.
  • The assessment base (vyměřovací základ) is calculated using average income since the age of 18 (from 1986 onwards). Older income is increased based on current prices.
  • The personal assessment base (osobní výpočtový základ) is the assessment base decreased by a percentage. The deductions are higher at higher levels of income. This is the basic amount used to calculate the percentage amount of an old-age pension.

Forms you may need

The old-age or early old-age pension application (Žádost o starobní i předčasný starobní důchod) is completed with Czech Social Security Administration staff.

There is no need to complete any forms in advance.

Know your rights

These links do not lead to European Commission websites and do not represent the views of the European Commission:

Please make use of EU assistance services if you experience any problems in applying your rights.

Useful contacts

Czech Social Security Administration (Česká správa sociálního zabezpečení)
Křížová 25
225 08 Prague 5
CZECH REPUBLIC
Call centre: +420 257062860

Czech Social Security Administration client centre for pension information (Klientské centrum ČSSZ pro informace o důchodech) .

List of Czech Social Security Administration offices ()

Czech Social Security Administration electronic registrar (in Czech)

Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the Czech Republic (Ministerstvo práce a sociálních věcí ČR)
Na Poříčním právu 1/376
128 01 Prague 2
CZECH REPUBLIC
Tel. +420 221921111
Data box: sc9aavg

Integrated portal of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the Czech Republic (Integrovaný portál Ministerstva práce a sociálních věcí ČR) in Czech

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