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Chapter 3.1 Skills Development (2016)
Ensuring that adequate high-quality skills are available and well-employed in the labour market remains an ongoing challenge for European policymakers, particularly in the face of numerous demographic, economic and social pressures. This chapter examines the extent to which Europe experiences mismatches on both sides of the market. Improving outcomes requires effective forecasting, relevant training for young people, active support for older workers to retrain, and wider visibility and recognition of skills acquired informally or across borders. Employers, as well as government, have a role and responsibility in such measures.
Chapter 2.2 Labour Mobility and Migration in the EU (2016)
Population ageing translates into a decline in the working-age population. To achieve higher growth, Europe needs to increase employment rates (including through mobility) and productivity growth and tap into migration. Mobile people in the EU tend to be young and highly educated and their employment rates are higher than those of the native population. Mobility has been increasing across the EU over the past two decades but remains low compared to other countries around the world. Moreover, mobile workers are under-represented in fast-growing sectors in the economy and work in jobs below their qualifications. Third-country migrant workers are a diverse pool but on average hold lower qualifications which can explain why on average they have lower employment rates. Highly qualified migrants instead have similar or higher chances than natives of being employed. This suggests that promoting skills can play an important role.
Chapter 1.1 Self-employment and entrepreneurship (2016)
Self-employment and entrepreneurship are important sources of job creation. One in six people in employment are self-employed and small and micro-enterprises provide a third of all jobs. Ongoing structural changes (e.g. technology change) create new ways of working in which flexibility and vision can provide new opportunities for smaller businesses. The challenge for Europe is to contribute to the development of the framework conditions that promote start-ups and their expansion and pay due regard to underrepresented groups such as women and youth. This includes investment in entrepreneurial education and financial literacy as well as conventional career guidance, skills development and access to finance.
Promising practice in the area of labour market/social integration of refugees (2016)
The Government wants newly arrived immigrants in Sweden to quickly find
a workplace that is relevant to the individual’s education, experience and
interest. At the same time, there is a shortage of labour in many industries;
these are now being helped with the provision of skills through the creation
of fast tracks by the Swedish Public Employment Service and the industries,
to make it easier for newly arrived immigrants to establish themselves in
the labour market.
Pillar 1: Skills and Lifelong Learning (2016)
Analytical Web Note 7/2015 – Measuring skills mismatch (2016)
Annual work programme for the implementation of the Pilot Project 'A European framework for mobility of apprentices: Developing European citizenship and skills through youth integration in the labour market' for 2016 (2016)
Workshop on Advancing the Quality, Supply, and Image of Innovative Apprenticeships - Article by Detlef Eckert (2016)
ESPN Flash Report 2015/18 - Malta - Linking formal education with vocational experience: the “education +” initiative (2015)
”education+” is a new initiative of the Ministry of Education, launched as part of the Government’s Framework for the Education Strategy for Malta 2014-2020, that is intended to develop and cultivate useful skills, attitudes and values among Malta’s youth. It seeks to empower young people to become active citizens and be employable in a dynamic society. It marks a clear departure from traditional learning systems which were mainly classroom/ laboratory based.
EEPO Review: Upskilling unemployed adults, March 2015 (2015)
This review presents an in-depth analysis of funded training provision across Member States aimed at raising the skills of adult unemployed persons (25-64) with low levels of qualifications or inadequate basic skills. The review describes the funding, the institutions responsible for governance and the implementation of training programmes. It maps and provides detailed information of the set-up of training interventions and measures provided to unemployed adults, based on individual country reports from each of the 33 countries covered by EEPO. The Review also explores lessons from comparative analysis, drawing on evaluation findings, highlighting effective design features and considers the role of the European Structural Fund (ESF) in supporting training for unemployed adults. Finally, it outlines the challenges training programmes need to overcome and presents a set of recommendations.