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Chapter 3.1 Skills Development (2016)
Ensuring that adequate high-quality skills are available and well-employed in the labour market remains an ongoing challenge for European policymakers, particularly in the face of numerous demographic, economic and social pressures. This chapter examines the extent to which Europe experiences mismatches on both sides of the market. Improving outcomes requires effective forecasting, relevant training for young people, active support for older workers to retrain, and wider visibility and recognition of skills acquired informally or across borders. Employers, as well as government, have a role and responsibility in such measures.
Annex I to Commission Staff Working Document - Tackling low skills: The Skills Guarantee (2016)
Commission Staff Working Document - Analytical underpinning for a New Skills Agenda for Europe (2016)
Chapter 2.2 Labour Mobility and Migration in the EU (2016)
Population ageing translates into a decline in the working-age population. To achieve higher growth, Europe needs to increase employment rates (including through mobility) and productivity growth and tap into migration. Mobile people in the EU tend to be young and highly educated and their employment rates are higher than those of the native population. Mobility has been increasing across the EU over the past two decades but remains low compared to other countries around the world. Moreover, mobile workers are under-represented in fast-growing sectors in the economy and work in jobs below their qualifications. Third-country migrant workers are a diverse pool but on average hold lower qualifications which can explain why on average they have lower employment rates. Highly qualified migrants instead have similar or higher chances than natives of being employed. This suggests that promoting skills can play an important role.
Skills Governance in the EU Member States, 2014 - Finland (2016)
Skills Governance in the EU Member States, 2014 - Finland
Skills Governance in the EU Member States, 2014 - France (2016)
Skills Governance in the EU Member States, 2014 - France
Skills Governance in the EU Member States, 2014 - Italy (2016)
Skills Governance in the EU Member States, 2014 - Italy
Skills Governance in the EU Member States, 2014 - Poland (2016)
Skills Governance in the EU Member States, 2014 - Poland
Chapter 1.1 Self-employment and entrepreneurship (2016)
Self-employment and entrepreneurship are important sources of job creation. One in six people in employment are self-employed and small and micro-enterprises provide a third of all jobs. Ongoing structural changes (e.g. technology change) create new ways of working in which flexibility and vision can provide new opportunities for smaller businesses. The challenge for Europe is to contribute to the development of the framework conditions that promote start-ups and their expansion and pay due regard to underrepresented groups such as women and youth. This includes investment in entrepreneurial education and financial literacy as well as conventional career guidance, skills development and access to finance.
Educational background, work history and learning skills of asylum seekers - Kaisu-Maria Piiroinen, Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland (2016)