Sustainable Methods for Optimal design and Operation of ships with air-lubricaTed Hulls
Air lubrication of Ship hull a large potential gain in hull effciency of up to 20%. SMOOTH seeks to fill missing technology gaps and enable air lubrication of hulls within normal European shipbuilding and operation practice for both inland and coastal ships.
While the basic concept of air lubrication is old, limited serious research has been performed. It was the PELS project, a Dutch national project that made a positive change. This project demonstrated that a positive overall energy gain can be achieved in all operational conditions with air lubrication. The required technology itself is new and requires further exploration. Based on the findings from the PELS project, the SMOOTH consortium estimates that ship hull efficiency improvements of up to 20% will be feasible. Such a step forward would be beneficial to the environment since the considerable reduction of fuel consumption will have its effect on the CO2, NOx and soot discharges. A reduction of fuel consumption will, of course, also be welcomed by the European shipping business since it will result in a reduction of costs.
European policies are addressed in a number of ways: the noticeable reduction of the operational costs by reducing the ship’s resistance, the enhancement of the quality and operational safety of the transport process, and the safer transport of crude oil and other dangerous and potentially polluting goods. The SMOOTH project facilitates the inter-European knowledge exchange, by providing a platform of co-operation for SMEs, companies and research institutes from six different European states, including and candidate country Turkey.
As air lubrication has been successfully tested for model ships, new products (in terms of suitable ultra repelant painting systems, ambient and functional air distribution and control systems) need to be developed further to apply this technique to vessels. The resulting verifiable and measurable objectives for the Smooth project are:
- to provide validated (finally tested on model scale) computational tools for a real ship design
- to validate scale effects of air lubrication
- to evaluate the economy of air lubrication in practice and demonstrate the concept at full size on an inland vessel.
- to prepare the safe introduction of air-lubricated ships in practice.
The strategic objective of SMOOTH is to apply air lubrication to ships and to provide the necessay new products in terms of control and paint systems to introduce air-lubricated ships. These ships may utilise micro-bubble (MB), air-film or air-cavity systems (ACS), for inland and coastal navigating ships with relatively shallow drafts.
Description of work
SMOOTH has defined a number of work packages.
WP1: Project management
WP2: Experiments on air films
WP3: Scale effects and sea trials
WP4: Model tests on air films
WP5: Model tests on micro-bubbles and air-cavity ships
WP6: Economic plus risk evaluation
WP7: Evaluation and dissemination
The techniques surveyed in SMOOTH for practical application and implementation in the coming generation of European ships will include in addition to improved drag and power-reduction , other innovations such as better stopping and manoeuverability.
Novel painting systems for ships and new air-control systems aboard ships will strengthen the position of the European shipbuilding industry represented within the Smooth consortium.
SMOOTH has the following deliverables:
D1.1 Project manual
D1.2 Management reports every six months, short summary reports every three months
D1.3 Mid-term report of the projects
D1.4 Project progress reports with cost statements, every 12 months
D1.5 Work package progress reports, i.e. mid-term, and final reports on each one
D1.6 Project completion reports
D2.1 Overview of the state of the art
D2.2 Overview applicable to super water-repellent (SWR) coatings for maritime applications
D2.3 Stability of air films and parameters that influence it
D2.4 Theoretical description of the phenomena
D3.1 Scale effects on air-film lubrication
D3.2 Scale effects on air lubrication in general
D4.1 Stability of air films on curved surfaces
D4.2 Effectiveness of air films in service
D5.1 Optimised design of an air-lubricated ship
D5.2 Validated design strategies
D6.1 Initial risk assessment for air-lubricated vessels
D6.2 Final risk assessment of air-lubricated ships
D6.3 First full-scale results on micro-bubble lubrication
D6.4 Equipped with a complete SWR coating of Akzo Nobel, the same barge is tested with air-film lubrication
D6.5 First large-scale tests with integrated air-supply system.
D7.1 Workshops, seminars and international conferences for dissemination of results and demonstrations
D7.2 Design guidelines for air-lubricated vessels
- Related Info
- Acronym: SMOOTH
- Name of proposal: Sustainable Methods for Optimal design and Operation of ships with air-lubricaTed Hulls
- Contract number: TST5-CT-2006-031392
- Instrument: STP
- Total cost: 2,525,500 €
- EU contribution: 1,438,250 €
- Call: FP6-2005-Transport 4
- Duration: 36 months
- Sector: Waterborne
- Objective: Advanced Design and Production Techniques
- Research domain: Application of advanced design and manufacturing techniques (Using advanced design tools, new products and systems generation)
- Coordinator: Dr Thill Cornel Maritime Research Institute Netherlands PO Box 28 Haagsteeg 2 NL 6700 AA Wageningen
- E-mail: email@example.com
- Tel: +31 (0)317 493 367
- Fax: +31 (0)317 493245
- International Paint UK
- Bureau Veritas FR
- Damen Shipyards Group NL
- Istanbul Technical University TR
- Ketting Compressoren B.V. NL
- New-Logistics GmbH DE
- SSPA Sweden AB SE
- Development Centre for Ship Technology and Transport Systems DE
- Thyssen Krupp Veerhaven NL
- Imtech NL