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MESSIAEN
Methods for the Efficient Simulation of Aircraft Engine Noise

Background

Aircraft noise is a major environmental and societal problem, and aircraft engine noise is currently the most prominent noise source. Noise generation by aircraft engines and propagation from the engine to a receiver (control microphone or citizen) is a complex process. To assess possible solutions, the industry requires accurate and flexible simulation tools able to predict the noise generated by a given engine and to compare, both critically and objectively, the efficiency of different quietening solutions.

Project objectives

Aircraft engine noise consists of various contributions: fan, compressor, turbine and jet noise. Fan noise is then separated further into forward (inlet) and rearward (exhaust) noise components. Simulation techniques now exist for fan forward noise propagation and radiation, for instance those developed in the earlier AROMA 5th Framework Programme project. These techniques are, however, limited in performance (especially for 3D geometries at mid to high frequencies). Moreover, exhaust fan noise raises specific questions, notably on the propagation of noise disturbances through shear layers generated by the coaxial jets behind the engine. MESSIAEN will target the development of new methods designed to meet these specific challenges.

The chosen method is based on the solution of linearised Euler equations (LEE) using discontinuous Galerkin methods (DGM). The objectives of MESSIAEN, expressed in terms of accuracy, performance and robustness, are based on specifications drawn by the industrial members of the consortium.

Work Package 3 studies sound propagation in a moving fluid. The image shows successive wave fronts generated by an acoustic point source radiating in a duct with uniform mean flow
Work Package 3 studies sound propagation in a moving fluid. The image shows successive wave fronts generated by an acoustic point source radiating in a duct with uniform mean flow

Description of the work

The work programme consists of six related Work Packages:

Work Package 1 defines the expectations of the industrial end-users in terms of applicability and performance. Detailed specifications were drawn for each targeted application: aircraft engine (from the standpoint of the air-framer, engine and nacelle manufacturers), turbo-shaft engine nozzle, air system and axial compressor.

Work Package 2 works on source modelling and on the recovery of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results for source quantification. Noise is generated by the flow through the fan, which is calculated by dedicated CFD tools. Work Package 2 considers both the physical and mathematical aspects related to noise generation but also the data interfacing aspects.

Work Package 3 investigates sound propagation in the near field of the source including the effect of liners. The method chosen in MESSIAEN is based on the solution of linearised Euler equations (LEE) using discontinuous Galerkin methods (DGM). This time-domain approach raises delicate issues related to the integration of frequency dependent impedance boundary conditions and of modal excitations, which are tackled in specific tasks. Alternative approaches (e.g. pseudo time-stepping) are also investigated.

Work Package 4 looks into the problem of sound radiation in the far field of the source. The DGM method only models the near field, and specific techniques like the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings method need to be implemented. An analytical approach (TEARS) and a simplified approach specifically tailored to air systems are also developed within Work Package 4.

Work Package 5 applies the developments to end-user applications: engine nacelle/bypass/exhaust applications, turbo-shaft engine nozzle applications, air systems applications and axial compressor applications.

Work Package 6 is concerned with project management, dissemination and exploitation.

Expected results

MESSIAEN will have a real impact in reinforcing competitiveness in the European aerospace industry. Significant cost and time benefits will follow from the ability to rely on computational methods rather than experimental tests in the design and verification activity of engine development programmes.

The MESSIAEN software will be commercially exploited by the coordinator, FFT, while other partner SMEs will enlarge their engineering services by including turbo-machinery noise design activities.

In Work Package 2, sound sources are calculated from pressure distribution calculated in three closely spaced sections just upstream of downstream the fan
In Work Package 2, sound sources are calculated from pressure distribution calculated in three closely spaced sections just upstream of downstream the fan

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