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IPSY
Innovative Particle Trap System for Future Diesel Combustion Concepts

Future diesel car engines will have ‘conventional’ combustion at high and full loads, and partial homogeneous combustion at low loads with different emissions. This makes necessary to develop new cleaning devices. To ensure soot regeneration at the resulting low NO/NO2 and exhaust temperature levels, the research will develop a compact porous media design for the trap, with tuneable particle collection and multifunction catalytic nanostructured materials together with the needed control strategies.

Tags: Road

Background

Advanced diesel combustion processes for passenger car diesel engines, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), or partial homogeneous combustion, are developed for their potential to achieve near zero particulate and NOx emissions. One of the drawbacks of this technology is the difficult combustion control at medium and high loads and consequently a limited operating range where NOx and particulate emissions are at a very low level. For this purpose, novel exhaust cleaning devices are necessary to process the different loading areas with its specific emissions well below the Euro V emission level. To ensure soot regeneration for the needed particulate trap at the low NO/NO2 and exhaust temperature levels resulting from efficient combustion, the project focuses on a novel design of porous media and novel catalytic nanostructured materials in a compact unit, with tuneable soot particle collection that will accommodate multifunctional catalytic coatings.

Objectives

The objectives will be a global filtration efficiency, even on ultra fine particulates above 95% with a nearly constant fuel consumption at slightly increased back pressure and advanced regeneration strategies in the range of 580°C in an acceptable time, therefore the focus lies on particulate and not only on CO and HC. In detail that means:

  • PM< 0.001 g/km NEDC
  • NOx: 0.06 g/km NEDC
  • applicability to passenger cars as well as adaptability to truck engines
  • fuel consumption equivalent to the Euro IV calibration including regeneration
  • ability to run in all driving conditions.

One of the main pillars of the project is to design, develop, construct and test an innovative multifunctional filter/reactor (MFR) for treating the particulate and gaseous pollutants from the exhaust streams of a HCCI, partial homogeneity and conventional combustion process of a diesel engine in the complete engine map. The other main pillar is the development of advanced regeneration strategies to minimise active regeneration cases to avoid the risk of increasing the fuel consumption.

IPSY structure
IPSY structure
FEV Motorentechnik GmbH

Description of work

There will be different key activities in the project:

  1. Development and construction of the multifunctional reactor divided in two tasks.

    Task 1A – MFR development:

    • catalyst synthesis and deposition on small-scale filters
    • construction of the MFR subunits
    • MFR prototype assembly and initial assessment
    • production of two fully-instrumented MFR prototypes for functional tests

    Task 1B – MFR evaluation with engine tests for loading and regeneration:

    • testing the MFR on a conventional multi-cylinder engine on steady-state and transient operation (NEDC)
    • testing the system with the HCCI engine under steady-state conditions
    • testing the system with applied control algorithms
  2. Physical modelling of particulate morphology on particulate trapping and the setting-up of a 3D CFD simulation model including all necessary boundary conditions. Due to the fact that the thermo-mechanical interactions in the system must be taken into account, the model must include a gas phase as well as a solid wall structure of the DPF (conjugate heat transfer).

    Following this activity, an algorithms for the powertrain control unit using the 3D simulation real-time model of the complete exhaust system and different filter characteristics will be developed. This will take into account thermal behaviour, coating, loading and soot oxidation for the new filter, as well as the engine out emissions and exhaust temperature of the HCCI diesel engine to integrate the real behaviour of the trap system in the entire vehicle environment.

Results

  1. Development of a MFR (multifunctional reactor) concept with:
    • novel catalysts (material, porosity, etc.) to cope with the higher CO, HC emissions and lower exhaust temperature
    • new DPF substrates to ensure passive regeneration and high filtration efficiency according to the soot characteristics produced by these future engines along with a low exhaust back pressure and high ash tolerance
    • adapted exhaust line designs to improve DPF global performance with the specific constraints of HCCI engines (high EGR rate with possible impact of exhaust gas composition on EGR valve and cooler, low exhaust temperature, etc.).
  2. Development of advanced control strategy concepts for exhaust gas after-treatment systems for diesel engines for the management of DPF regeneration based on experimental and simulation investigations, at first with the goal to widen passive regeneration zone and then for a forced regeneration by minimising extra fuel consumption and avoiding excessive thermal shock for a better DPF durability.
  3. Overall time and cost reduction in developing exhaust gas after-treatment systems for diesel engines by improved simulation methods.

All these expected results are necessary to improve the exhaust emissions well below the expected Euro V level to cope with the future challenges of achieving environmentally-friendly vehicles for the EU citizens.

Modelling and controlling
Modelling and controlling
FEV Motorentechnik GmbH

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