Navigation path

Decrease textIncrease textDividerPrint versionRSSDivider

Training of Train Drivers in Safety Relevant Issues with Validated and Integrated Computer-based Technology

2TRAIN aims at developing standards for a safety enhancing use of computer-based training technology for European train drivers. A common simulation interface will be developed, as well as several add-on systems, tested with simulation scenarios focusing on the ability to act in hazardous situations.

Tags: Rail


The European railway sector is a continually growing economic area and recent years have brought significant developments in rail technology. Responding to these tendencies, the EU is aiming at enhancing rail safety as well as improving the harmonisation and interoperability between railway systems. The establishment of safe, competitive and interoperable railways in Europe demands particular attention to the qualification of train drivers. 2TRAIN will particularly focus on the development and evaluation of computer-based training systems. At present 133 000 train drivers are employed in the EU-25. Working directly at the human-machine-interface they are specifically affected by technical developments and the increasing amount of cross-border operations. To strengthen the harmonisation, it is necessary to advance common training technology as well as common training content. Developments concerning these two aspects are the scientific and technological objectives of 2TRAIN as, until now, no broad effort concerning the common training of train drivers in Europe has existed. A complete harmonisation of training technology and training content will be unachievable. Nevertheless there is a strong need to harmonise and coordinate the education of drivers concerning general driving and operational abilities, as well as particular crisis management competencies.


2TRAIN aims at developing European standards for the training of train driver competencies providing best-practice guidelines for an efficient, safety enhancing and cost-effective use of the latest computer-based training technologies. The starting point of 2TRAIN is benchmarking the training technology, content and models that are already in use in Europe. To reach a harmonisation of diverse training technologies and to allow a standardised driver evaluation, a common data interface will be developed and implemented into three simulator pilots. In addition, a CBT pilot will be realised. In the second step, common training simulation scenarios and CBT modules will be developed that will particularly focus on the training of crisis management competencies and abilities to act in rarely occurring hazardous situations. The trainees’ actual behaviour will be compared to predefined target behaviour. The results will be stored in an assessment database that will be used as a base for the development of a virtual instructor and further add-on systems, e.g. standardised performance evaluation. The quality of 2TRAIN is ensured by a close collaboration between operational railway companies and their partners in the field of R&D, the integration of the newest computer-based training technologies, and the strong support from a user group consisting of further European stakeholders.

2TRAIN key objectives
2TRAIN key objectives

Description of work

Based on benchmarking results, training technology, content and models will be specified in order to adjust the further project steps. The development and implementation of a common data simulation interface will overcome existing differences in European training technologies and allow for a standardised data recording, driver assessment and evaluation. Three simulator pilots are intended to demonstrate the technical developments within 2TRAIN as well as their acceptance and resulting learning effects. In addition, a rule-based expert system in national variants will gather the target behaviour of the train driver in different situations. The comparison of target behaviour (expert system) and actual behaviour (simulation data) of the train driver provides the data for both a virtual instructor and an assessment database. The virtual instructor enables an online assessment to give feedback to the trainee on how to improve the driving tasks. In this way the system will also be able to provide adaptive training. In addition, the assessment data will be stored in a database. The stored data will provide the basis for training feedback as well as for recommendations concerning future training arrangements. As a core result of 2TRAIN recommendations, best-practice guidelines concerning the usage of training technology and assessment procedures for train drivers in Europe will be proposed.


The first benchmarking report will include information and conclusions about strengths and weaknesses of each simulator analysed, and a comparison with the standards of training technology. A second report will include information and conclusions about the training contents and training models for each railway operator, and a comparison with the standards of drivers’ training. The technical deliverables are a common simulation data interface, a rule-based expert system, a virtual instructor and a database for standardisation. In addition, simulation scenarios, computer-based training modules as well as the description of assessment parameters and thresholds will be compiled. Four pilots are intended for demonstration activities as a combination of existing training tools and enabling technology. At least one pilot should include simulation, CBT and assessment data management. The European railway companies will be provided with guidelines for an efficient, safety enhancing and cost-effective use of modern technologies for the competence training and assessment of train drivers. There will be a close informational exchange with a huge numbers of stakeholders organised in a user group. The exploitable results will be included in an exploitation and business plan, which will highlight the European dimension of the exploitation issues, and define the strategy and methods for a future deployment.

2TRAIN technical development
2TRAIN technical development