SwafS publications database

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Gender Equality

She Figures 2018

Publication cover Equality between women and men is a core value of the European Union, actively promoted in all aspects of life by the European Commission. What is the situation in Research and Innovation? Are women participating and contributing to it to the same extent as men? Or is the so-called ‘leaky pipeline’, the phenomenon of women dropping out of research and academic careers at a faster rate than men, still prevalent?

The She Figures 2018 presents the latest available official statistics on the footprint of women in the research landscape. The data follow the ‘chronological journey’ of researchers, from graduating from higher education programmes to acquiring decision-making roles, while considering their working conditions and intellectual outputs. The publication highlights also the differences between women and men in all these respects. It is recommended reading for policymakers, researchers and anybody with a general interest in these issues.

The She Figures was produced in close collaboration between the European Commission, Eurostat and the Statistical Correspondents of the EU Member States and Associated Countries.

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She Figures Handbook 2018

Publication cover The She Figures Handbook 2018 provides methodological guidance on the calculation of indicators included in the She Figures 2018 publication, the sixth iteration of the European Commission’s She Figures publication since the release of its seminal version in 2003.

Organised by data source, information provided on each indicator includes a brief definition, rationale, computation method and any comments or critical issues for the reader to note. The handbook also includes a section on the verification and validation of data that outlines coherence checks and additional data considerations to be taken into consideration in the computation and interpretation of indicators. Finally, the annexes outline important information regarding international classification standards (e.g. ISCED, ISCO) to which data for several of the indicators are tied, as well as key terminology and definitions.

The release of the 2018 version of the handbook beyond the groups directly involved in the production of the She Figures publication is intended to strengthen the capacity of other stakeholders to systematically produce meaningful, systematic data on gender in research and innovation.

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Interim Evaluation: Gender equality as a crosscutting issue in Horizon 2020

Publication coverThis report was drafted by the Commission expert group on the interim evaluation of gender as a crosscutting issue in Horizon 2020. This report aims to identify possible improvements in the implementation of gender equality as a crosscutting issue in Horizon 2020. It assists the European Commission in assessing gender equality, and – in particular – the gender dimension in research and innovation content, as a crosscutting issue at the various stages of the implementation of Horizon 2020 from the Work Programme definition to the funded projects. It aims to provide a solid evidence base for designing future activities and initiatives, in particular the preparation of the exante impact assessment of the next Framework Programme for Research and Innovation.

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She Figures 2015

Publication coverThe She Figures 2015 is the 'go-to' document for anyone interested in gaining a more comprehensive understanding of the current state of gender equality in research and innovation in the European Union. In addition to comparable statistics on women and men amongst PhD graduates, researchers and decision-makers, it sheds light on differences in working conditions. It also presents for the first time the situation of men and women in scientific publications and patent applications, as well as the inclusion of the gender dimension in scientific articles

The She Figures was produced in close collaboration between the European Commission, Eurostat, the Helsinki Group on Gender in Research and Innovation and Statistical Correspondents.

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She Figures 2015 - Handbook

Publication coverThe She Figures Handbook provides methodological guidance on the calculation of indicators included in the She Figures 2015 publication. Organised by data source, information provided on each indicator includes a brief definition, rationale, computation method and any comments or critical issues for the reader to note. This handbook is intended to strengthen the capacity of stakeholders to systematically produce meaningful data on gender in research and innovation

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Preliminary results of She Figures 2015

Publication coverThis leaflet presents some initial results of the She Figures 2015 data collection. It provides data on the proportions of women and men amongst top level graduates and researchers. Furthermore it shows preliminary data on women’s representation in decision making roles, such as at the head of universities or as members and leaders of research boards at national level. It also shed light on the commitment to promote gender equality of a subset of Research Performing Organisations (RPOs). The She Figures 2015 Report will be published by the end of the year and uploaded on this e-Library. The cooperation of the Member States, Associated Countries, and colleagues from Eurostat in preparing She Figures is gratefully acknowledged.

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Gender Equality Policies in Public Research

Publication coverThis report is based on a survey among the members of the Helsinki Group, the Commission’s advisory group on gender, research and innova¬tion. It gives a detailed analysis of the current state-of-play of EU Member States’ and associ¬ated countries’ initiatives for promoting gender equality in research and innovation

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Vademecum on Gender Equality in Horizon 2020

Publication coverThe purpose of this Vademecum is to provide the Commission/ Agency staff2, potential applicants, the Helsinki Group, NCPs, as well as experts’ evaluators and other actors involved in the implementation of Horizon 2020 with practical guidance on the effective application of the new Gender Equality provisions. This means integrating Gender Equality issues at each stage of the research cycle: from programming through implementation, monitoring and programme evaluation.

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Gendered Innovations

How gender analysis contributes to research : report of the expert group 'Innovation through gender'

Publication coverOpinion polls suggest that women are less interested in innovation than men. The explanation surely lies elsewhere: do today's innovations really respond adequately to women's needs and expectations? In too many cases they do not. Thirty years of research have revealed that sex and gender bias is socially harmful and expensive. Gender bias also leads to missed market opportunities. Gendered innovations offer sophisticated methods of sex and gender analysis to scientists and engineers. This publication includes case studies as concrete illustrations of how sex and gender analysis lead to new ideas and excellence in research in several fields such as health & medicine, environment & climate change, food & nutrition, transport and technological development

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Structural change in research institutions

Enhancing excellence, gender equality and efficiency in research and innovation

Publication coverThe feminisation of the student population is one of the most striking aspects of the last 30 years. But women are still struggling to progress men in their scientific career. At leadership level, women account for only 18% of full professors and 13% of heads of institutions in the higher education sector. Based on recent scientific findings and research practices, this expert report provides the analysis needed to take action and points to good practices in research institutions which attract and promote women in research and innovation

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  • Structural Changes - Workshop report

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  • Structural Changes - Newsletter

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Gender in EU-funded research


Publication coverEver since the Treaty of Rome, the European Union has consistently advocated gender equality as one of its core policies. Yet the monitoring and assessment studies of FP5 and FP6 have shown that despite the efforts to promote gender in research, women remain under-represented and the issue of gender is far from being systematically addressed in research projects. What’s more, there are sound reasons for the research community to invest in a gender-sensitive research agenda. Investing in equal opportunities for men and women in research makes for teams that perform better and attracts top-level researchers.

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She figures 2012

Gender in research and innovation : statistics and indicators

Publication coverWomen employed as researchers still remain a minority, but are they catching up? Is their distribution throughout different fields of science changing over time? Are women effectively progressing in their careers to achieve top-level positions? Are more women sitting on executive or advisory boards of research organisations? The She Figures 2012 contains the most recent available data on the involvement of women covering the period from tertiary education to employment and their work-life outlook, in the 27 EU Member States and in the associated countries

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Stocktaking 10 years of "women in science" policy by the European Commission 1999-2009

Publication coverTen years ago the European Commission started its activities on "women in science". This Report records this ten-year history, analyses the activities undertaken, provides an assessment of their effectiveness and appropriateness, and - whenever possible - includes a reflection on what did not work, what was not done, and how these omissions could be addressed. The authors believe that this report - a stocktaking of 10 years of activities on "women in science" - will help the European Commission to make decisions on future policy because of the perspective provided by the process of "taking stock". And this report should also help future proposal presenters, providing them with the background to the topic, and the details of previously funded projects, thereby placing the Framework Programme calls into a policy development context

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Preliminary results of She Figures 2012

Publication coverThis leaflet presents some preliminary results of the She Figures 2012 data collection. The She Figures 2012 booklet will be published in December 2012 and uploaded on the DG Research and Innovation Women in Science website. The cooperation of the Member States, Associated Countries, and colleagues from Eurostat in preparing She Figures is gratefully acknowledged.

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Meta-analysis of gender and science research

Synthesis report

Publication coverThis report summarises the main conclusions of the study ‘Meta-analysis of gender and science research’, a project of the 7th RTD Framework Programme of the European Union. Its main objective was to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the last thirty years of European research on horizontal and vertical gender segregation in science with a view to steering policymaking and to defining future research priorities in this field. A major output of the study was the creation of the Gender and Science Database (GSD), a unique online resource containing 4,500 European academic publications scanning three decades. Further details can be found on the website of the project, which gives access to the GSD and all the reports produced throughout the study (www.genderandscience.org)

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Women and science

Excellence and innovation: gender equality in science

Publication coverThis report submitted at the request of the Research Council of June 2001, gives an overview of women and science actions implemented at European level since the Council Resolution and of the results achieved. The focus of the overview is on the European Commission's activities to promote gender equality in science and the progress made in increasing the participation of women in science in the EU Member States since 1999. The report demonstrates that although some progress has been achieved since the adoption of the previous reports in 1999 and 2001, the situation is still far from satisfactory. With a view to preparing the Seventh Framework Programme, the following challenges need to be addressed if real progress is to be made in achieving gender equality in science

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Mapping the maze

Getting more women to the top in research

Publication coverSince the 1990s, an analysis of senior university staff reveals that women are underrepresented on scientific decision–making boards in almost all European countries. For this reason, the European Commission has invited an independent expert group, namely, the expert group on Women In Research Decision Making (WIRDEM) to identify and review positive actions and gender equality measures at institutional and national level to promote women into senior positions in public research. In the course of one year of fruitful research, the WIRDEM expert group produced the homonymous report which examines and describes in detail nomination procedures, obstacles, facts and funding limitations that women need to overcome in their academic careers. It reviews the procedures for evaluating and promoting research personnel to senior positions and identifies examples of good practice at national and institutional levels. Based on this analysis, the report proposes recommendations to facilitate the design of a framework for better targeted actions at European level, and highlights the problem of poor awareness and visibility. It clearly shows that transparent and fair evaluation and promotion procedures alone are not sufficient to improve gender balance in research decision-making; a change of culture is required. The experts therefore also make suggestions as to how the prevailing scientific culture could change to become more inclusive

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Council resolution

Publication coverof 26 June 2001 on science and society and on women in science (2001/C 199/01)

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Science and society

Action plan

Publication coverThis Action Plan represents a new European initiative to develop a stronger and more harmonious relationship between the world of science and society at large. It sets out 38 actions dealing with the place of science in education and popular culture, involving citizens in science policy, the gender dimension, ethics, and governance. Whilst the European Commission intends to act as a catalysing force, these actions will require a concerted effort by actors in the member states, the regions, stakeholder groups and concerned citizens. The plan provides a common framework to monitor progress and to assess results

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Women in industrial research

A wake up call for European industry

Publication coverA report to the European Commission from the High Level Expert Group on Women in Industrial Research for strategic analysis of specific science and technology policy issues (STRATA)

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Waste of talents

Turning private struggles into a public issue : women and science in the Enwise countries

Publication coverThe Enwise report on the situation facing women scientists in the Central and Eastern European countries and the Baltic States shows thaht women account for 38% of the scientific workforce in these coutries. However this statistic conceals some bitter truths : a large proportion of female scientists are employed in areas where R&D expenditure is lowest. Inadequate resources and poor infrastructure impede the progress of q whole generation of promising scientists. Men are three times more likely to reach senior academic positions than women. In this rather gloomy picture, there is nevertheless a positive sign : wwoemn scientist from the Enwise coutries participate significantly in the European Union's Framework Programme. The report puts forward recommendations to the various istakeholders at European and national level, who can help to enhance the role and place of women scientists from the Enwise coutries in the European Research Area

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She figures 2009

Publication coverStatistics and indicators on gender equality in science

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  • Corrigendum

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  • Preliminary results of She Figures 2009

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  • She Figures 2006

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  • She Figures 2003

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Publication cover

Why and how to participate in the European Research and Innovation Framework Programme Horizon 2020?
Manual for civil society organisations on how to participate in projects financially supported by Horizon 2020 – published by Fondation Sciences Citoyennes.

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