Despite a prestigious past, it is hard to see today a truly European intellectual space. The obstacles to the emergence of this space mainly rise from the development of the Nation-States which, in fact, have destroyed the community of scientists and intellectuals that existed before. This book is a reflection about the history and the contemporary developments of the European intellectual space, the movement of ideas and men across Europe, international intellectual cooperation, publication and translation strategies in the fields of literature and social sciences and the humanities. It is the result of the ESSE project and is based on the contributions of an interdisciplinary team of sociologists, historians, political scientists and researchers in literature studies whose aim is to defend the possibility of an autonomous critical thought (and space!) in Europe. The book has received a wide acclaim and will be debated on France-Culture (French radio station) on 23 June, between 11.00 and 12.00 am.