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This approach aims to promote, as far as possible, the gendering of statistical collections at national and European level, in order to obtain harmonised and comparable data. This has been implemented mainly through existing data collection activities at European level. It hinges upon a strong level of co-operation and willingness between all institutions involved in the production of statistics at European and international levels. This co-operation results from the recognition that women make an important contribution to science These institutions are:

All these organisations have addressed gender issues in many and various ways as indicated below:


The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe adopted in February 1999 a report (Doc. 8332) from its Committee on Science and Technology on the Role of women in the field of science and technology. Summary Throughout Europe, increasing numbers of women are gaining and using academic qualifications and working in occupations that, for a long time, were a male preserve. However, while this demonstrates that the gender-orientation of research and occupations can change, the positions occupied by women within them still tend to be more junior than those of men. What is more, male hegemony persists, at all levels, especially in mathematics and physics, and in pure research and in the field of industrial applications. The fact that women are kept away from knowledge and occupations which play a key role in modern society, such as those related to science and technology, is unfair and harmful both for women and for society as a whole which deprives itself of their skills. The Committee on Science and Technology proposes three main sets of recommendations to rectify this situation. Firstly, to improve the availability of information on the place that women occupy in science and technology; secondly, to improve girls' access to scientific and technological studies and careers and thirdly, to achieve greater equality in the relations between men and women throughout society. (More information at



UNESCO is actively involved in promoting women’s access to science and technology and organizes and supports many activities. There are the “L'OREAL/UNESCO prizes and grants for Women in Science”, the UNESCO Regional Chairs "Women, Science and Technology" to promote women scientists and scientific training for girls” and various regional, national and international networks of women scientists that UNESCO has created. Towards the end of 2005 the publication of a world report on science technology and gender is foreseen. For more information on these activities visit



Eurostat, which is the Statistical Office of the European Communities, provides the European Union with statistics at European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions. Over the last four years Eurostat has mobilised a major effort to integrate sex-breakdown into R&D statistics, most notably in the legal basis and in the questionnaires since 2001. The Women and Science unit work closely and collaborate regularly with Eurostat colleagues from unit B5 (Reseach) in their efforts to improve data quality and also to source other areas of data to exploit which are already available through the Eurostat statistical system (e.g. structure of earnings survey, labour force survey etc….). Since October 2004, Eurostat has been disseminating all data for free through their website, for more information, please click here.



OECD has produced the two reference manuals in the field of defining the standards to be used for R&D statistical data collection, i.e. the Frascati and Canberra Manuals.
The Frascati Manual (FM), adopted in 1963 (and revised in 2002), is devoted to the measurement of human and financial resources devoted to R&D and identifies three categories of R&D personnel: researchers, technicians and supporting staff.
The Canberra Manual (developed through a co-operation between Eurostat/DG Research and OECD) was first adopted in 1995. It covers the human resources actually or potentially devoted to the systematic generation, advancement, diffusion of the scientific and technological knowledge, employed in S&T activities at the appropriate level or having received a specific qualification.
For more information see

Explanatory Note
Dictionary of Abbreviations
Methodological notes on researchers in the BES
Methodological notes on academic staff
Methodological notes on funding data
Methodological notes on boards