IMPORTANT LEGAL NOTICE - The information on this site is subject to adisclaimerand acopyright notice
Contact   |   Search  
W&S Stats & Indicators
Statistical Correspondents
Download Indicators
Download Statistics
Useful Links

Abbreviations used in the tables and graphs

Further Information on the data

The abbreviations used come under the following headings:



f women
m men
t total

Country EU-25

AT Austria
BE-FL Belgium Flemish speaking community
BE-FR Belgium French speaking community
CY Cyprus
CZ Czech Republic
DE Germany
DK Denmark
EE Estonia
EL Greece
ES Spain
FI Finland
FR France
HU Hungary
IE Ireland
IT Italy
LT Lithuania
LU Luxembourg
LV Latvia
MT Malta
NL The Netherlands
PL Poland
PT Portugal
SE Sweden
SI Slovenia
SK Slovakia
UK United Kingdom

Associated countries

BG Bulgaria
CH Switzerland
IL Israel
IS Iceland
NO Norway
RO Romania
TR Turkey

Institutional sector

BES Business Enterprise Sector
Includes all firms, organisations and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price, and the private non-profit institutes mainly serving them.

Main field of science

NS Natural sciences
  • Mathematics and computer sciences
  • Physical sciences
  • Chemical sciences
  • Earth and related environmental sciences
  • Biological sciences
ET Engineering and technology
  • Civil engineering
  • Electrical engineering, electronics
  • Other engineering sciences
MS Medical sciences
  • Basic medicine
  • Clinical medicine
  • Health sciences
AS Agricultural sciences
  • Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and allied sciences
  • Veterinary medicine
SS Social sciences
  • Psychology
  • Economics
  • Educational sciences
  • Other social sciences
H Humanities
  • History
  • Languages and literature
  • Other humanities


RSE Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned.


HC Head Count: Data on the total number of persons who are mainly or partially employed on R&D allow links to be made with other series of data, for example education or employment data or the results of population censuses. Headcount data are also the most appropriate measure for collecting additional information about R&D personnel, such as their age, gender, or national origin.
FTE Full-Time Equivalent: One FTE may be thought of as one person-year or one year's work by one full-time person.


Explanatory Note
Dictionary of Abbreviations
Methodological notes on researchers in the BES
Methodological notes on academic staff
Methodological notes on funding data
Methodological notes on boards