This consists of exploiting
data that already exist at national level:
- To provide a framework for national efforts
the Helsinki Group nominated statistical correspondents
for each participating country to manage the reporting
and methodological consistency of data and metadata.
Their first meeting was held in March 2001.
- A project entitled "Design and collection
of statistical indicators on women in science"
has been ongoing since 2000 whereby the statistical
correspondents report data on an annual basis
to the Women and Science unit who then check,
summarise and publish the data.
- A "Women and scientific Employment: Mapping
the European data" survey has been carried
out by Dr Judith Glover and Diane Bebbington from
University of Surrey Roehampton in London.
- Two feasibility studies on the 'Development
of patent indicators by gender and of bibliometric
indicators by gender'; has been carried out by
Biosoft, based in Milan, Italy, during 2000 and
"Design and collection of statistical
indicators on women in science"
This project represents
the bulk of the bottom up approach and is concerned
with collecting national data from the 25 Member States
and the 7 countries associated to the 5th and 6th
framework programmes through the Helsinki Group statistical
correspondents. It was launched in May 2000 by the
Women and Science unit and the main activities are
- Data validation in line with the international
- Development of core sets of gender sensitive indicators
for the mid and long term. These indicators are
constructed on the basis of the availability of
national data as well as the information needs of
the statistical correspondents.
- Provision of the latest summaries of the data
availability and results, which can be downloaded
from this site.
- Statistical contributions to various publications
(Statistics in Focus, ENWISE report etc…..)
In 2003 She Figures was
published, which constituted the widest collection
of European indicators on Women and Science yet produced.
An updated version is envisaged for the end of 2005.
General enquiries: RTD-WOMENSCIENCE@ec.europa.eu
and Scientific Employment: Mapping the European Area (1999)
The main outcome of this
survey is a Directory of more than 300 pages, investigating
data availability in EU Member States. 60 datasets have
been scrutinised in terms of their potential to answer a
series of research questions of key interest to the study
of women's scientific employment, in particular horizontal
and vertical segregation. Each data set has thus been describe
in terms of its potential utility for the analysis of a
range of key concerns, as follows:
At the April Conference 'Women and science: making change
happen', Dr Judith Glover and Diane Bebbington presented their
Directory during the working session on indicators. A hard
copy of this 1st edition can be delivered upon request by
sending an e-mail to Marianna.Major@ec.europa.eu
- The availability of the data (published data and secondary analysis).
- The educational classification used.
- The occupational classification used.
- The industrial classification used.
- Whether hierarchical sex segregation could be assessed.
- Whether the relationship between scientific qualifications and occupational outcomes could be assessed.
- Whether attrition (the higher the level of scientific education, the lower the level of women's representation) could be assessed.
- Whether differences between the scientific and applied scientific disciplines, including computer sciences, could be ascertained.
- Whether differentials between women and men's salaries could be measured.
- Whether distinctions could be made between public sector and business sector employment.
- Whether women scientists' domestic situation and its relationship to employment status could be ascertained.
of Patent Indicators by Gender & of Bibliometric Indicators
These two feasibility studies aimed to assess the feasibility of using first name analysis to measure the S&T productivity of women, because:
- The main sources of data in this field are not yet disaggregated by sex
- Having new gender indicators relating to the inventors of technology is useful for exploring gender differences between countries, technology fields and sectors, and over time
- Bibliometric indicators by gender permits analysis such as gender specialisation in particular fields of science, differences in scientific productivity between men and women,
differences in the citation of papers (as an indicator of the quality of scientific output).
Five countries were investigated: Germany, France, Spain, Sweden, and UK. The main goal of these feasibility studies,
besides the feasibility itself of such indicators, is to provide evidence to help decide whether it would be feasible to extend the analysis to all the UE countries for a 5 year period
Some methodological barriers, such as sampling the bibliometric data were encountered and solutions proposed and implemented. The study also yielded some indicators such as the percentage of women among the first 100 more cited articles and the 100 most productive authors.
For further information about this project, please contact: