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BOTTOM-UP approach

Further Information on the data


This consists of exploiting data that already exist at national level:

    1. To provide a framework for national efforts the Helsinki Group nominated statistical correspondents for each participating country to manage the reporting and methodological consistency of data and metadata. Their first meeting was held in March 2001.
    2. A project entitled "Design and collection of statistical indicators on women in science" has been ongoing since 2000 whereby the statistical correspondents report data on an annual basis to the Women and Science unit who then check, summarise and publish the data.
    3. A "Women and scientific Employment: Mapping the European data" survey has been carried out by Dr Judith Glover and Diane Bebbington from University of Surrey Roehampton in London.
    4. Two feasibility studies on the 'Development of patent indicators by gender and of bibliometric indicators by gender'; has been carried out by Biosoft, based in Milan, Italy, during 2000 and 2001.

"Design and collection of statistical indicators on women in science"

This project represents the bulk of the bottom up approach and is concerned with collecting national data from the 25 Member States and the 7 countries associated to the 5th and 6th framework programmes through the Helsinki Group statistical correspondents. It was launched in May 2000 by the Women and Science unit and the main activities are centred around:

  • Data validation in line with the international standards.
  • Development of core sets of gender sensitive indicators for the mid and long term. These indicators are constructed on the basis of the availability of national data as well as the information needs of the statistical correspondents.
  • Provision of the latest summaries of the data availability and results, which can be downloaded from this site.
  • Statistical contributions to various publications (Statistics in Focus, ENWISE report etc…..)

In 2003 She Figures was published, which constituted the widest collection of European indicators on Women and Science yet produced. An updated version is envisaged for the end of 2005.

General enquiries:

Women and Scientific Employment: Mapping the European Area (1999)

The main outcome of this survey is a Directory of more than 300 pages, investigating data availability in EU Member States. 60 datasets have been scrutinised in terms of their potential to answer a series of research questions of key interest to the study of women's scientific employment, in particular horizontal and vertical segregation. Each data set has thus been describe in terms of its potential utility for the analysis of a range of key concerns, as follows:

  1. The availability of the data (published data and secondary analysis).
  2. The educational classification used.
  3. The occupational classification used.
  4. The industrial classification used.
  5. Whether hierarchical sex segregation could be assessed.
  6. Whether the relationship between scientific qualifications and occupational outcomes could be assessed.
  7. Whether attrition (the higher the level of scientific education, the lower the level of women's representation) could be assessed.
  8. Whether differences between the scientific and applied scientific disciplines, including computer sciences, could be ascertained.
  9. Whether differentials between women and men's salaries could be measured.
  10. Whether distinctions could be made between public sector and business sector employment.
  11. Whether women scientists' domestic situation and its relationship to employment status could be ascertained.
At the April Conference 'Women and science: making change happen', Dr Judith Glover and Diane Bebbington presented their Directory during the working session on indicators. A hard copy of this 1st edition can be delivered upon request by sending an e-mail to

Development of Patent Indicators by Gender & of Bibliometric Indicators by Gender

These two feasibility studies aimed to assess the feasibility of using first name analysis to measure the S&T productivity of women, because:

  • The main sources of data in this field are not yet disaggregated by sex
  • Having new gender indicators relating to the inventors of technology is useful for exploring gender differences between countries, technology fields and sectors, and over time
  • Bibliometric indicators by gender permits analysis such as gender specialisation in particular fields of science, differences in scientific productivity between men and women, differences in the citation of papers (as an indicator of the quality of scientific output).
    Five countries were investigated: Germany, France, Spain, Sweden, and UK. The main goal of these feasibility studies, besides the feasibility itself of such indicators, is to provide evidence to help decide whether it would be feasible to extend the analysis to all the UE countries for a 5 year period
    Some methodological barriers, such as sampling the bibliometric data were encountered and solutions proposed and implemented. The study also yielded some indicators such as the percentage of women among the first 100 more cited articles and the 100 most productive authors.
    For further information about this project, please contact:
Explanatory Note
Dictionary of Abbreviations
Methodological notes on researchers in the BES
Methodological notes on academic staff
Methodological notes on funding data
Methodological notes on boards