TOPIC : Fighting inequalities through policies against tax fraud and tax evasion
|Publication date:||14 October 2015|
|Types of action:||RIA Research and Innovation action|
|DeadlineModel: Opening date:||single-stage 27 October 2015||Deadline:||04 February 2016 17:00:00|
|Time Zone : (Brussels time)|
Topic DescriptionSpecific Challenge:
Tax fraud and tax evasion represent a complex challenge for European countries. Also voluntary schemes for tax optimization and tax heavens in Europe and globally are significant in this regard. The scale of the lost revenue is staggering, with possible consequences for the fight against inequalities. First, unpaid taxes limit the capacity of Member States to invest in and implement social and economic policies and services as well as social protection systems. Second, tax fraud and tax evasion also constitute a direct impediment to equal treatment and in fact exacerbate inequalities as they lead to additional and potentially excessive fiscal burdens on those who fulfil their tax obligations. The foregone revenue could help to stimulate economic growth, prevent cuts in public services and mitigate fiscal and social inequalities. Moreover, the fact that well-off or well-connected people benefit from privileged tax treatment decreases and potentially undermines the trust citizens have in the fairness of policies and democratic institutions. The specific challenge is to identify and analyse deficiencies in tax law and enforcement at EU level and across Member States in a context of economic globalisation, including the role of (off-shore) tax havens and to obtain a clearer picture on perpetrators’ attitudes.Scope:
The research to address this challenge should in particular focus on the two dimensions described below. Proposals can comprehensively address one dimension or combine them. They may include additional aspects which are relevant to addressing the specific challenge.
1) The state dimension: the role of governments; tax law and tax enforcement regimes
Research should identify deficiencies at governmental level, in tax laws and in tax collection and enforcement regimes, whereby the role of the banking and tax advisory sectors should also be considered (see below point 2). A good range of Member States’ legal regimes and tax collecting practices including statistical capacities and methodologies should be comparatively surveyed, their strengths and shortcomings analysed and evaluated. Due regard must be given to all forms of corruption as well as systemic, including voluntary, deficiencies. The research should provide a comparative cross-analysis of tax fraud and tax evasion prevalence in European countries. Attention should be paid to the analysis of money laundering techniques. Research should also identify deficiencies in tax enforcement and tax administration practices, technical setup and legal frameworks at national, regional, local, European and global levels. Due regard must be given to the international dimension of taxation. This relates, on the one hand to interconnectedness of economies and markets, and on the other hand to international initiatives and standard setting notably on undue transfer pricing, base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) and transparency. Based on these insights, research should compare the impact of strategies to enhance tax compliance such as adjusting tax laws including rates, altering sanctions and sentencing provided by law or putting in place amnesty programmes and better information exchange between countries. Innovative and reliable methodologies to study the effects and effectiveness of different government policies are called for.
2) The perpetrators’ side: practices, motivations and attitudes across Europe
Research should inventory practices, mechanisms and strategies and attitudes of perpetrators comparatively. It should investigate the economic, social, psychological, ideological, historical and cultural drivers behind fraudulent tax practices behaviour. Variation in terms of location, income brackets, sector of activity and any other relevant variables should be explored. In addition, research should analyse fiscal non-compliance through the lens of ethics, morality and social justice. This research requires, if and where possible, a temporal dimension, assessing whether and to what extent practices and especially attitudes have been changing in particular in recent years in the wake of the financial crisis. Research should also assess whether and to what extent the prevalence of tax fraud, optimisation, evasion and avoidance might be socially and/or culturally or gender embedded. Regard should be had to amnesty programmes where applicable and their impact should be assessed. Due regard must be given to the international dimension of fraudulent tax practices behaviour. This relates, on the one hand to illicit financial flows from and to third countries, notably resource rich developing countries and on the other hand to differences in European legislation concerning tax avoidance, corruption and bribery in third countries. Special attention should be paid not only to tax fraud and evasion, but also to tax avoidance, especially regarding individuals in top income brackets and corporations. These groups have access to more sophisticated means of non-compliance or 'bending the rules' such as storing money in tax havens, moving to a different tax jurisdiction or using shell companies to hide profit, in particular through targeted tax and finance advisory services. In turn, combating tax evasion in these cases will require investigating and developing sophisticated methods of data sharing and administrative collaboration at trans-national level and a better understanding of the interplay of tax authorities, tax payers and tax consultants.
The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU in the order of EUR 2.5 million for each dimension would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. This does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts.Expected Impact:
Research will significantly enhance the knowledge base of various tax law and enforcement systems among Member States in general and identify their deficiencies in a comparative way in particular. It will make recommendations and suggest practical options which help redress and reverse tax fraud, optimisations, evasions and avoidance. Furthermore, research will considerably improve understanding of practices, motivations and attitudes of perpetrators, both individual and corporate, with the role of the intermediary financial sector better understood. Recommendations will be made on how tax compliance can be improved, and how it could to a greater extent be portrayed and seen as a virtue. Research is expected to propose readily applicable instruments and strategies to reduce tax fraud, tax optimisation, tax evasion, money laundering and to incentivise tax compliance, whereby national circumstances should be taken into account. The quantitative and qualitative data collected will contribute to increasing the efficiency of tax administrations in European countries by enabling them to better target their compliance and inspection efforts on the individual and company level as well as in sectors of economy with a higher probability of non-compliance. Research should also set out best practices for enhancing cooperation, trust and confidence between tax administrations and taxpayers.
There are many different estimates and reports on the scale of tax avoidance generally, and in relation to certain companies in particular, coming from tax administrations, NGOs, academics and press. There is no conclusive figure quantifying the scale of corporate tax avoidance, although the general consensus is that it seems to be substantive. One of the highest estimates refers to the amount of € 860 billion a year for tax evasion and € 150 billion a year for tax avoidance. The link to the study is; http://europeansforfinancialreform.org/en/system/files/3842_en_richard_murphy_eu_tax_gap_en_120229.pdf.
COM(2015) 136 Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on tax transparency to fight tax evasion and avoidance.
Among the possible channels for crisis induced changes: modifications in current and expected levels of income and wealth, as well as possible changing norms, including because of a perceived reduction in state efficiency.
Topic conditions and documents
Please read carefully all provisions below before the preparation of your application.
- List of countries and applicable rules for funding: described in part A of the General Annexes of the General Work Programme.
Note also that a number of non-EU/non-Associated Countries that are not automatically eligible for funding have made specific provisions for making funding available for their participants in Horizon 2020 projects (follow the links to Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Hong Kong & Macau, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Taiwan).
- Eligibility and admissibility conditions: described in part B and C of the General Annexes of the General Work Programme.
Proposal page limits and layout: Please refer to Part B of the standard proposal template.
3.1 Evaluation criteria and procedure, scoring and threshold: described in part H of the General Annexes of the General Work Programme
3.2 Specific evaluation procedure: At least 1 proposal per topic will be selected for funding provided it passes all evaluation thresholds.
3.3 Submission and evaluation process: Guide to the submission and evaluation process
- Indicative timetable for evaluation and grant agreement:
Information on the outcome of single-stage evaluation: maximum 5 months from the deadline for submission.
Signature of grant agreements: maximum 8 months from the deadline for submission.
Members of consortium are required to conclude a consortium agreement, in principle prior to the signature of the grant agreement.
- Provisions, proposal templates and evaluation forms for the type(s) of action(s) under this topic:
Research and Innovation Action:
Specific provisions and funding rates
Standard proposal template
Standard evaluation form
H2020 General MGA -Multi-Beneficiary
Annotated Grant Agreement
- Additional provisions:
Horizon 2020 budget flexibility
Technology readiness levels (TRL) – where a topic description refers to TRL, these definitions apply.
Financial support to Third Parties – where a topic description foresees financial support to Third Parties, these provisions apply.
- Open access must be granted to all scientific publications resulting from Horizon 2020 actions, and proposals must refer to measures envisaged. Where relevant, proposals should also provide information on how the participants will manage the research data generated and/or collected during the project, such as details on what types of data the project will generate, whether and how this data will be exploited or made accessible for verification and re-use, and how it will be curated and preserved.
This topic participates per default in the open access to research data pilot which aims to improve and maximise access to and re-use of research data generated by projects:
• The pilot applies to the data needed to validate the results presented in scientific publications. Additionally, projects can choose to make other data available for open access and need to describe their approach in a Data Management Plan (to be provided within six months after the project start).
• Note that the evaluation phase proposals will not be evaluated more favourably because they are part of the Pilot, and will not be penalised for opting out of the Pilot.
• Projects can at any stage opt-out of the pilot.
The legal requirements for projects participating in this pilot are in the article 29.3 of the Model Grant Agreement.
Further information on the Open Research Data Pilot is made available in the H2020 Online Manual.
- Additional documents
H2020 Work Programme 2016-17: Introduction
H2020 Work Programme 2016-17: Europe in a changing world - inclusive, innovative and reflective societies
H2020 Work Programme 2016-17: Dissemination, Exploitation and Evaluation
H2020 Work Programme 2016-17: General Annexes
Legal basis: Horizon 2020 - Regulation of Establishment
Legal basis: Horizon 2020 Rules for Participation
Legal basis: Horizon 2020 Specific Programme
- Flash Call Info en
No submission system is open for this topic.
H2020 Online Manual your online guide on the procedures from proposal submission to managing your grant.
Participant Portal FAQ – Submission of proposals.
National Contact Points (NCP) - contact your NCP for further assistance.
Research Enquiry Service – ask questions about any aspect of European research in general and the EU Research Framework Programmes in particular.
Enterprise Europe Network – contact your EEN national contact for advice to businesses with special focus on SMEs. The support includes guidance on the EU research funding.
IT Helpdesk- contact the Participant Portal IT helpdesk for questions such as forgotten passwords, access rights and roles, technical aspects of submission of proposals, etc.
Ethics – for compliance with ethical issues, see the Participant Portal and Science and Society Portal
European IPR Helpdesk assists you on intellectual property issues
CEN and CENELEC, the European Standards Organisations, advise you how to tackle standardisation in your project proposal. Contact CEN-CENELEC Research Helpdesk at email@example.com.
The European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for their recruitment
Partner Search Services help you find a partner organisation for your proposal
Ideal-IST partner search facility