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Open Science Monitor

What is open scholarly communication?

Communication activities are an important part of open science. Open scholarly communication relates to the engagement of different stakeholders and the inclusion of different activities at various stages of the research cycle and touches upon aspects of collaboration, accessibility and transparency. Communication is ‘enabled’ in some sense by open access and open research data: that is, as research data and findings become more open, there is more for people to communicate about.

 

Explore the indicators related to open scholarly communication

Select an indicator to see its description, visualise the data, understand its limitations, and identify the data sources.

Open peer reviews

Journal policies on open peer review

Use of altmetric platforms

Corrections and retractions

Preprints

Alternative publishing platforms

 

 

Case Studies

Summaries provide a short description of the ‘what’, ’who’ ‘when’, and ‘why’ of open science-related initiatives. Detailed case studies are also available for download.

  • Polymath Project
    A collaborative website trying to find solutions to unsolved problems in combinatorial mathematics
A detailed methodology report (PDF icon 229 KB) describes how the monitor was developed
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Source: 101 Innovations (2016).
Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

The Innovations in Scholarly Communication Survey was run from May 2015 to February 2016 by librarians from the Utrecht University Library. The aim of the survey was to find out what research tools are being used by researchers. The survey was made publically available, and received more than 20,000 responses (demographic data). The data are publically available, both through download and an interactive visualisation tool. They allow for comparison of research workflows across the research cycle for different disciplines and countries.

The results presented here are for all survey respondents. These questions have also been analysed specifically for respondents from the EU. See the complete survey results.

 

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Source: Nature Publishing Group (2015), Author Insights 2015 survey. figshare. Retrieved: December 08, 2016.
Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

The Author Insights Survey is conducted by Nature Publishing Group (NPG) and Palgrave Macmillan. This annual survey aims to measure author attitudes and behaviours related to different aspects of the publishing process. The 2015 survey was run between March and April 2015. It was sent to more than 500,000 authors from both the sciences and the arts. The survey received 22,090 responses, with the majority being authors of papers published in NPG and Palgrave Macmillan journals.

 

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Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

chart
Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

chart
Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

chart
Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

chart
Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

Structural Genomics Consortium

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  • Demonstrates an open and collaborative approach at every stage of its working model
  • Enables a wider range of actors to participate in drug discovery
  • Catalysed drug discovery work on rare and neglected diseases
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What?

Open access to research results on less well-studied areas of the human genome with the aim of catalysing human biology research and drug discovery. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) has placed over 1,500 protein structures and 75 kinase structures in the public domain.

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When?

2004-2011.

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Who?

The SGC started out as a collaboration between researchers at the University of Oxford and the University of Toronto. The network has since expanded to include universities in Brazil, Germany, Sweden and the United States.

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Why?

The SGC aims to mobilise a critical mass of expertise in order to overcome a decrease in productivity in drug discovery resulting from patenting policies and the complexity of the underpinning science.

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The Open Science Element

The SGC aims to remove the barriers to participation and collaboration in drug discovery by:

  • Foregoing patent claims
  • Providing open access to all outputs, including through the Protein Data Bank
  • Sending samples to researchers

Data FAIRport

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  • Provides guidelines to support management and stewardship of research data in the life sciences
  • Developed using an open and collaborative approach
  • Used in an increasing number of projects and research communities
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What?

The initiative aims to provide a minimal but comprehensive framework for developing and implementing good management and stewardship of research data and metadata in life sciences. The initiative does not suggest any technology or protocol to achieve this goal, but rather provides a set of guiding principles and a framework to make research data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Re-usable (‘FAIR’).

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When?

The initiative was launched in 2014.

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Who?

The initiative started as a follow-up to the ‘Jointly designing a Data FAIRport’ workshop. The workshop was organised by the Netherlands eScience Center and the Dutch Techcentre for the Life Sciences (DTL), with attendees from leading international research infrastructures and policy institutes, publishers, semantic web specialists, innovators, computer scientists and experimental (e)Scientists.

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Why?

Aiming to support broadly the life sciences research community to reconcile the increasing volume of research data produced with the ability to analyse and link the data, which has not developed at the same speed.

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The Open Science Element

  • Guiding principles to make research data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Re-usable (‘FAIR’)
  • A framework for the practical implementation of the principles
  • Technological solutions based on ‘Hackathons’ and/or ‘Bring Your Own Data’ parties

Zenodo

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  • Enables researchers to store and share journal publications and supporting data
  • Fosters open collaboration among researchers in different fields and from different institutions
  • Contributes to changing publishers, funders and researchers’ attitudes towards open science
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What?

A general-purpose open access repository of research data and journal publications.

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When?

Zenodo was launched in 2013.

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Who?

Zenodo is hosted at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). It was created as part of the Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe (OpenAIRE) project funded by the EC.

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Why?

The repository was created to foster open collaboration among researchers from all types of institutions across all fields of science.

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The Open Science Element

The repository aims to become a model for:

  • Open access: Open sharing of research publications
  • Open data: Open sharing of research data including software, video/audio files, figures and tables, illustrations and datasets
  • Open collaboration: Open collaboration among researchers and between funders and publishers through the creation of communities

Reproducibility Project

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  • Demonstrated an open, collaborative methodology
  • Informed debates about scientific reproducibility
  • Is helping drive change among publishers and funders
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What?

The project was a collaborative effort to replicate 100 psychology experiments. Only about 40 per cent of the original findings could be replicated.

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When?

2011-2015.

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Who?

The project was initiated and coordinated by Professor Brian Nosek, who now leads the Center for Open Science in Virginia, USA. The replications were carried out by 270 researchers around the world.

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Why?

The project was set up to systematically explore the reproducibility of scientific findings, focusing on the field of psychology.

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The Open Science Element

  • Open sharing of research designs and protocols
  • Interactions between the original researchers and those replicating their studies
  • Reuse of original materials
  • Raw data and reports on the replications made publicly available

Sloan Digital Sky Survey

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  • An open research data project
  • Enabled a comprehensive mapping of the universe
  • The largest open access database of the universe in the world
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What?

SDSS is an astronomical survey, collecting large data sets via a 2.5-meter optical telescope run by New Mexico State University. The objective is to reflect the large-scale structure of our universe in multi-coloured images and with these to create three-dimensional maps.

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When?

SDSS was launched in 1990.

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Who?

The SDSS is conducted by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC), a non-profit partnership among research universities and laboratories, and brings together research teams from leading astronomical institutes.

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Why?

To provide accurate measurements for a large number of galaxies. It was designed to gather enough data to address a broad range of issues in astronomical inquiry, from the Milky Way to solar systems. It was built using two key technologies: optical fibres and digital imaging detectors (CCDs), which were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009.

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The Open Science Element

  • Open access to information about the universe
  • Citizen scientists classifying images through Galaxy Zoo
  • Tools including lesson plans and ideas to use Galaxy Zoo in education

Polymath Project

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  • An open, collaborative initiative to find solutions to unsolved mathematics problems
  • Initiated a debate on the characteristics of and incentives for collaboration
  • Inspired a similar project to encourage students to conduct collaborative research
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What?

A collaborative website where researchers and interested people with a background in mathematics try to find solutions to unsolved problems in combinatorial mathematics. Unsolved problems are published on a blog and a wiki page that summarises all the knowledge developed for that specific problem. Research and discussion threads enable researchers to post their contributions and discuss solutions.

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Why?

The Polymath project was set out to understand whether ‘massive collaborative mathematics’ was a possible path for research in mathematics. Besides the solution to 3 of the 11 problems published to date, the project led to a parallel debate in the combinatorics research community on the characteristics that a collaborative approach should have and on the incentives for researchers to work collaboratively.

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Who?

The project was started by Cambridge professor and Fields medallist Timothy Gowers, and is mainly developed together with Prof. Terence Tao alongside Michael Nielsen who oversees the wiki pages.

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When?

2009 - present

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The Open Science Element

  • The collaborative approach allows all interested researchers to suggest problems and to collaborate on finding the solution
  • It has inspired a similar project targeted specifically focused on educating high school and college students on how to conduct research in a collaborative way (the ‘Crowdmath’ project)