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Open Science Monitor

What are open access publications?

Open access research outputs are commonly defined as either:

  • Gold Open Access: research outputs made open access by the publisher; journal publications are freely available on the journal website
  • Green Open Access: research outputs that are not made open access by the publisher, but that the author independently deposits in an open access repository

Green and gold open access both refer to research outputs published through the traditional model, in which papers are peer-reviewed and then published in journals. Alternative models are being developed. The most common alternative, which has been standard practice in some fields since the 1990s, is to openly publish preprints – non-peer-reviewed articles – before or instead of publishing in a peer-reviewed journal. This allows work to be published and made openly accessible earlier. There are also models, such as F1000Research, which combine these two approaches.

 

Explore the indicators related to open access to publications

Select an indicator to see its description, visualise the data, understand its limitations, and identify the data sources.

Open access publications

Preprints

Alternative publishing platforms

Funder policies on open access

Journal policies on open access

Researcher attitudes towards open access

The figures below show results from three surveys on researcher attitudes towards open access

 

 

Case Studies

Summaries provide a short description of the ‘what’, ’who’ ‘when’, and ‘why’ of open science-related initiatives. Detailed case studies are also available for download.

A detailed methodology report (PDF icon 229 KB) describes how the monitor was developed
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Source: 101 Innovations (2016).
Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

The Innovations in Scholarly Communication Survey was run from May 2015 to February 2016 by librarians from the Utrecht University Library. The aim of the survey was to find out what research tools are being used by researchers. The survey was made publically available, and received more than 20,000 responses (demographic data). The data are publically available, both through download and an interactive visualisation tool. They allow for comparison of research workflows across the research cycle for different disciplines and countries.

The results presented here are for all survey respondents. These questions have also been analysed specifically for respondents from the EU. See the complete survey results.

 

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Source: Nature Publishing Group (2015), Author Insights 2015 survey. figshare. Retrieved: December 08, 2016.
Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

The Author Insights Survey is conducted by Nature Publishing Group (NPG) and Palgrave Macmillan. This annual survey aims to measure author attitudes and behaviours related to different aspects of the publishing process. The 2015 survey was run between March and April 2015. It was sent to more than 500,000 authors from both the sciences and the arts. The survey received 22,090 responses, with the majority being authors of papers published in NPG and Palgrave Macmillan journals.

 

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Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

chart
Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

chart
Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

chart
Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

chart
Source: Taylor & Francis (2014) Taylor & Francis Open Access Survey, June. Retrieved: December 23, 2016. Figures have been redrawn from the originals.

Taylor & Francis carried out a survey on Open Access in 2013 and 2014. The surveys focus on open access issues, including attitudes and values, licenses, practices and the future of open access. The 2014 survey was sent in March to authors who published with Taylor & Francis during 2012, while the 2013 survey was sent to authors from 2011. The 2014 survey was sent to 89,181 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 7,936 of whom responded. Respondents from East and South-East Asia were under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented. The 2013 survey was sent to 82,994 authors from both the sciences and the arts, 14,769 of whom responded. Respondents from Asia were slightly under-represented in the survey, whilst those from the U.S. and Canada were slightly over-represented.

 

The Social Science Open Access Repository (SSOAR)

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  • Enables open access to social science publications
  • Contributes to changing social science publishers, funders and researchers’ attitudes towards open science
  • Fosters collaboration with social science institutions, specialised infrastructure providers, libraries and publishers
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What?

A database of open access social science research articles.

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When?

SSOAR was launched in 2007.

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Who?

SSOAR is hosted and maintained by GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences.

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Why?

SSOAR was created to address the need for a structured, open access database to make social sciences literature easily accessible.

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The Open Science Element

  • SSOAR is an open access repository for social science research content
  • An open data component is also being developed

Reproducibility Project

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  • Demonstrated an open, collaborative methodology
  • Informed debates about scientific reproducibility
  • Is helping drive change among publishers and funders
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What?

The project was a collaborative effort to replicate 100 psychology experiments. Only about 40 per cent of the original findings could be replicated.

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When?

2011-2015.

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Who?

The project was initiated and coordinated by Professor Brian Nosek, who now leads the Center for Open Science in Virginia, USA. The replications were carried out by 270 researchers around the world.

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Why?

The project was set up to systematically explore the reproducibility of scientific findings, focusing on the field of psychology.

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The Open Science Element

  • Open sharing of research designs and protocols
  • Interactions between the original researchers and those replicating their studies
  • Reuse of original materials
  • Raw data and reports on the replications made publicly available

Zenodo

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  • Enables researchers to store and share journal publications and supporting data
  • Fosters open collaboration among researchers in different fields and from different institutions
  • Contributes to changing publishers, funders and researchers’ attitudes towards open science
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What?

A general-purpose open access repository of research data and journal publications.

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When?

Zenodo was launched in 2013.

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Who?

Zenodo is hosted at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). It was created as part of the Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe (OpenAIRE) project funded by the EC.

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Why?

The repository was created to foster open collaboration among researchers from all types of institutions across all fields of science.

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The Open Science Element

The repository aims to become a model for:

  • Open access: Open sharing of research publications
  • Open data: Open sharing of research data including software, video/audio files, figures and tables, illustrations and datasets
  • Open collaboration: Open collaboration among researchers and between funders and publishers through the creation of communities