How our brains share emotions, such as intense fear

Although being stuck in a brain scanner while being exposed to a horror film may not be everyone's idea of fun, monitoring volunteers' grey cells throughout this process can tell scientists a lot. EU-funded research using this and other memorable techniques has generated new knowledge on the way we process and transmit social information.

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Countries
Countries
  Algeria
  Argentina
  Australia
  Austria
  Bangladesh
  Belarus
  Belgium
  Benin
  Bolivia
  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  Brazil
  Bulgaria
  Burkina Faso
  Cambodia
  Cameroon
  Canada
  Cape Verde
  Chile
  China
  Colombia
  Costa Rica
  Croatia
  Cyprus
  Czechia
  Denmark
  Ecuador
  Egypt
  Estonia
  Ethiopia
  Faroe Islands
  Finland
  France
  French Polynesia
  Georgia


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Published: 9 December 2020  
Related theme(s) and subtheme(s)
Frontier research (ERC)
Health & life sciencesMedical research  |  Neuroscience
Human resources & mobilityCareers & mobility
Research policySeventh Framework Programme
Social sciences and humanities
Countries involved in the project described in the article
Finland
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How our brains share emotions, such as intense fear

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© kirasolly, #249983442, source:stock.adobe.com 2020

We all have similarly constructed brains and our lives are governed by the same physical principles. Yet our perception of the people and the world around us could still be very different. So how exactly do we tune into other people to understand things from their point of view?

According to the findings of the SOCIAL BRAIN project, which was funded by the European Research Council, synchronisation plays a key role in our common understanding of our social environment. When we tell others about past events that have affected us, for example, their brains attune to ours. Similar patterns of neural activation form as listeners mentally recreate these experiences, says principal investigator Lauri Nummenmaa of the University of Turku, Finland, who led the project.

This alignment is central to our ability to understand each other, Nummenmaa emphasises. ‘We mimic the brain state of others,’ he says, adding that individual emotions produce very distinctive neural fingerprints.

SOCIAL BRAIN developed new tools and techniques to study how our brains process and relay social information. It also came up with leads for potential applications, including diagnostic support for conditions such as autism, where this synchronisation process may be impaired.

Another potential use could be automatic recognition of human emotions from brain activity, Nummenmaa adds, explaining that a machine-learning algorithm designed by the project accomplishes this task with a high level of accuracy. This capability could be useful for movie-rating purposes, among other things.

Spine-chilling experiences ...

SOCIAL BRAIN also studied the physical sensations that we associate with emotions, concluding that these too combine in distinctive ways – and that they are universal.

As of April 2020, respondents from more than 100 countries have used the project’s mapping tool to show where they feel physical manifestations of emotions, such as anger or shame, says Nummenmaa. Their descriptions are remarkably similar, indicating that these patterns are part of our shared representation of the world. Based on this collective input, the project generated body maps representing a wide variety of emotions.

... in a natural setting

According to Nummenmaa, neuroimaging to study how our brain works has traditionally focused on simplified stimuli. Photos, for instance, are typically used to learn more about face recognition, although things are much more complex in the real world. ‘We see faces in a constant ebb and flow as people move about or engage with each other,’ he says. ‘We live in a dynamic, interactive environment, so that’s what the brain is tuned for. Many of the phenomena we study in the lab are different in real life.’

As the unwieldy scanners on which his research relies are not suitable for use outside the lab, the project set out to create more realistic conditions inside the brain scanners, Nummenmaa explains. ‘We had to push the boundaries of brain imaging and analytical technique to be able to do so.’

This newfound capability enabled the team to capture and analyse the complex phenomena at play. For example, in one study, volunteers in the brain scanner viewed horror films through a pair of goggles, which created an immersive experience. This experiment enabled the researchers to study the brain’s response to fear more accurately.

The project, which ended in December 2018, was backed by a European Research Council grant designed to support potential research leaders at the beginning of their career. ‘It gave us time and freedom to focus,’ says Nummenmaa, who was in the process of setting up his own laboratory at the time.

Seven years on, the lab’s work on the brain basis of emotions continues – notably with researchers applying the project’s ‘neurocinematics’ approach to the study of addictions and eating disorders.

Project details

  • Project acronym: SOCIAL BRAIN
  • Participants: Finland
  • Project N°: 313000
  • Total costs: EUR 1 280 479
  • EU contribution: EUR 1 280 479
  • Duration: April 2013 to December 2018

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