Important legal notice
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Transport - More sustainable and secure transport systems
“To promote optimal pricing policies in transport.”

The problem

A major research effort on transport pricing by previous EU-funded projects has left significant issues remaining to be addressed. It has not yet generated consensus among researchers or policy-makers on the division of transport infrastructure costs into fixed and variable elements. There is large variability in the estimates of road congestion and noise-related costs. There has been relatively little work on air and waterborne transport and rail capacity, and the crucial issue of the optimal degree of complexity of transport charges has been largely neglected.

GRACE  Making sure the price is right for transport


GRACE supports the development of sustainable transport systems through transport pricing policies that reflect the costs of infrastructure use.

The project will:

  • Investigate marginal social costs for transport, including pricing policy options and modeling of their effects
  • Develop the use of transport accounts to monitor the implementation of transport pricing reform in an enlarged Europe
  • Undertake innovative research on the appropriate degree of complexity in transport charges
  • Reach clear conclusions, and recommendations for policy and further research

Contribution to policy development:

  • GRACE will afford a deeper insight into previously researched topics, bringing increased clarity for policy development.
  • It will lead to the application of existing methods to policy areas where they have not been previously applied.
  • It will reach clear conclusions on optimum complexity of transport pricing systems and policies.

Project deliverables

  • Findings on monitoring pricing policy using accounts and the optimal complexity of transport pricing – April 2006
  • Marginal costs case studies for road, rail, air and waterborne transport – October 2006
  • Findings on socio-economic impact of transport pricing reforms – June 2007
  • Software for generalising cost estimates – September 2007
  • Policy conclusions on marginal social cost pricing – December 2007


  • Project website carrying reports and other deliverables – from March 2005
  • Seminars for researchers policy-makers and stakeholders – at six-monthly intervals
  • Close interaction with participants in related EU-funded projects – ongoing
  • Final conference – December 2007
  • Publications in academic and professional journals – submission as appropriate

Technical information

Project acronym: GRACE
Project’s official full title: Generalisation of Research on Accounts and Cost Estimation
Research priority: The development of tools, indicators and operational parameters for assessing sustainable transport and energy systems performance (economic, environmental and social)
Specific webpage:
Proposal/contract no: 006222
Start date: 1 July 2005
Kick off meeting: not available
Completion date: 31 March 2008
European Commission scientific officer: Fredrik Rasmussen,

Name: University of Leeds
Abbreviated name: UNIVLEEDS
Address: Leeds, LS2 9JT
Country: United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 113 243 1751
Fax: +44 (0) 113 244 3923


Name: VTI
Abbreviated name: VTI
Country: Sweden

Name: University of Antwerp
Abbreviated name: UA
Country: Belgium

Name: DIW
Abbreviated name: DIW
Country: Germany

Name: ISIS
Abbreviated name: ISIS
Country: Italy

Name: Katholieke University of Leuven
Abbreviated name: KU.LeuvenR&D
Country: Belgium

Name: adpC
Abbreviated name: adpC
Country: Belgium

Name: Aristotle University of Thessalonika
Abbreviated name: AUTH
Country: Greece

Name: BUTE
Abbreviated name: BUTE
Country: Hungary

Name: Christian-Albrechts University
Abbreviated name: CAU Kiel
Country: Germany

Name: Ecoplan
Abbreviated name: Ecoplan
Country: Switzerland

Name: IER University of Stuttgart
Abbreviated name: USTUTT
Country: Germany

Name: TNO Inro
Abbreviated name: TNO
Country: Netherlands

Name: EIT, University of Las Palmas
Abbreviated name: EIT
Country: Spain

Name: Uniwersytet Gdanski
Abbreviated name: University of Gdansk
Country: Poland