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Wider international cooperation

European research in fusion has been acknowledged as a forerunner of the European Research Area. This has allowed research at national and European levels to be combined into a single integrated programme for the benefit of all. This international collaboration, however, is not restricted to EU Member States, as a number of bilateral agreements allow third parties to participate in the European programme.

The wider international collaboration on fusion represents an extensive network of bilateral and multilateral activities.

While the Broader Approach Agreement stands out as an important example of this 'bilateral approach', there are other bilateral fusion Cooperation Agreements between Euratom and third countries. These agreements are mainly focussed on activities that support activities on ITER.

Currently, bilateral agreements are in force between Euratom and Japan, Kazakhstan, Russia,Ukraine, the US, South Korea and Switzerland. Further bilateral agreements are signed with India and Brazil and under negotiation with China.

Euratom also manages cooperation agreements at the multilateral level.

These include:

  • the OECD International Energy Agency (IEA), in particular the Fusion Power Coordinating Committee (FPCC), under which many of the implementing agreements for ITER and other activities are operated,
  • the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its International Fusion Research Council (IFRC),
  • the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) organised by the ITER International Organisation,
  • the International Science and Technology Centre (ISTC) in Moscow and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU) supported by the Contact Expert Group on Fusion RTD.