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Fusion Associations: Italy

ENEA - Fusion , official ENEA Fusion web site

"The Plasma Physics Laboratories, also known as the Ionised Gas Laboratories, were set up in the 1960s at the Frascati National Laboratories, where research on fundamental physics or high-energy physics had already started in 1956. This particular field of research is now carried out under the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN).

Since 1976 the research activities on controlled thermonuclear fusion have continued under ENEA programmes, always developped in collaboration with industries and in association with Euratom and CNR." - Quote from site.

FTU: Frascati Tokamak Upgrade

"The main task of the Section for the Management of Large Experimental Facilities is to ensure that the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) machine operates reliably including control and acquisition of engineering & physical data during the nuclear fusion experiment." - Quote from site.

CNR-Milan, Institute for Plasma Physics

"The Institute was established as Laboratorio di Fisica del Plasma ed Elettronica Quantistica in 1970 under the Direction of Prof. Piero Caldirola, with two separate sections: the plasma physics section at the University of Milan and the Quantum electronics section at the Politecnico (School of Engineering) of Milan. The esperimental activity of the plasma section was mainly oriented toward studies of ionized gas discharges while the theoretical studies were focussed on problems of radio wave propagation in the ionosphere and of experiments interpretation." - Quote from site.

Later in 1975, the two sections split and the plasma section kept the name of Laboratorio di Fisica del Plasma. In 1976, the European scientific collaboration started in the frame of the EURATOM-CNR Association, established together with the Istituto Gas Ionizzati of Padua. Within this association the tokamak THOR was built and operated from 1978 to 1989 with an auxiliary RF power system at 28 Ghz for electron heating by ECW waves. These experiments were financed under "preferential support" by Euratom.

In 1979 the Laboratory was named Istituto di Fisica del Plasma. In 1985 the EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association was established, unifying the relations with Euratom of all Italian institutes doing research on thermonuclear fusion (contracts 202/85/FUAI; 343/88/FUAI, and present contract 01.01.88-31.12.98). The experience gained on the THOR tokamak has allowed the Institute to design, construct, and operate scientifically and technically the electron heating experiment with radiofrequency power at 140 Ghz on the plasma of the FTU tokamak of C.R.E. ENEA in Frascati, under Euratom 'preferential support'. In the frame of the CNR reorganization, on 15/10/2001 the Institute is confirmed as Istituto di Fisica del Plasma 'Piero Caldirola' (IFP)." - Quote from site.

Consorzio RFX

"Consorzio RFX is a research organization promoted by CNR, ENEA, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A. and INFN, within the framework of the Euratom - ENEA Association." - Quote from site.

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