International cooperation is a key feature of the fusion research programme, particularly since the challenges involved in achieving a sustainable source of energy are considerable. With a long tradition of cooperation in nuclear research, Europe is taking a highly integrated approach to fusion research through the Euratom Research Framework Programmes and major long-term projects such as JET.
The main international fusion cooperation framework is now the ITER Agreement between seven parties: the EU, China, India, Japan, Russia, South Korea, and the US. The Broader Approach Agreement between the EU and Japan was negotiated parallel to the ITER Agreement.
For the EU, the European Commission represents the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in these agreements. The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy (Fusion for Energy or F4E) are responsible for implementing the ITER agreement, providing Euratom's contribution to ITER, implementing the Broader Approach, and preparing for the construction of demonstration fusion power reactors (DEMO).
In addition, a number of bilateral agreements support fusion research activities with third countries and other international cooperation frameworks.