Mechanisms of early protective exposures on allergy development (Nutrition)
Project acronym: EFRAIM
Title of project: Mechanisms of early protective exposures on allergy development
Research area: Nutrition
Contract No: 211911
EU contribution: €2 988 000
Start date: February 2008
Duration: 48 months
Allergies set off early in life and accumulating evidence indicates that various exogenous factors are responsible. Children brought up on traditional farms are more protected from a predisposition to allergic diseases – also known as atopy – and asthma than non-farm children.
To further investigate this observation, the EU-funded 'Mechanisms of early protective exposures on allergy development' (EFRAIM) initiative investigated various factors early in life that influence the development of allergies in children from rural environments. In particular, the project focused on lifestyle, diet and other environmental (e.g. microbial) exposures. Partners addressed two routes of preventive interventions in animal models and in vitro studies: the development of an allergy protective milk formula and the development of an allergy vaccine.
Based on families enrolled during the predecessor programme PASTURE, EFRAIM scientists assessed objective measures of allergies in blood taken at birth, and at ages 1, 4, 5 and 6. This data was coupled with detailed information on the onset of allergic illnesses and environmental exposures, collected through questionnaires and complementary clinical examination.
A series of genotyping and epigenetic studies have been performed alongside gene expression analyses to illustrate the maturation of the immune system and the activation of immune responses
Combined with fatty acid measurements in the serum of children, project partners hoped to determine the immuno-modulatory activity of raw versus pasteurised milk and of milk components. EFRAIM established a qualitative and quantitative method to analyse fatty acids in milk samples but also in the serum samples in the EFRAIM project. An active compounds analysis of milk samples from different milk production centres was undertaken with a view to get further comparing raw and pasteurised milk.
At the pre-clinical level, scientists analysed Lactococcus lactis in the OVA asthma mouse model and developed it as a candidate for an allergy-protective vaccine. Although its efficacy has yet to be determined, the EFRAIM study has opened up potential new avenues of exploration for the development of anti-allergy vaccines.
Overall, the EFRAIM project is a good example of how knowledge about protective exposures early in life can be turned into the development of preventive strategies.
Website of project: www.efraim-online.com/project.html
Coordinator: Erika VON MUTIUS (Professor), Erika.von.Mutius@med.uni-muenchen.de
Organisation: LUDWIG-MAXIMILIANS-UNIVERSITAET MUENCHEN, www.asthma-allergy.de/
- Children's Hospital Schwarzach, Austria, www.kh-schwarzach.at
- Philipps-University of Marburg, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics, Germany, www.med.uni-marburg.de
- University of Zurich Children's Hospital, Allergy Research Group, Switzerland, www.kispi.uzh.ch/index_en.html
- National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, Finland, www.thl.fi
- University of Ulm, Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Germany, www.uni-ulm.de/med/med-epidemiologie/
- University of Franche-Comte, University Hospital, Departments of Chest Diseases and of Occupational Medicine, France, www.univ-fcomte.fr/
- University Children's Hospital of Berne, Switzerland, www.ukbb.ch
- Protectimmun GmbH, Germany, www.protectimmun.de
- Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Ireland, www.teagasc.ie
- University of Basel, Switzerland, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine at the Swiss Tropical Institute, www.ispm-unibasel.ch
- Technical University Munich/Weihenstephan, Germany, www.wzw.tum.de
- University of Utrecht, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), the Netherlands, www.iras.uu.nl
- Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Centre National de Génotypage PI, France, www.cng.fr
- Hannover Medical School, Germany, www.asthmagene.de