The Romanian agricultural research system
The public-funded RD activity that is relevant for agriculture is mainly performed within research institutes, agricultural universities and several private entities.
The research institutes are grouped under the following bodies:
- Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences (www.asas.ro) - 62 R&D units relevant to agriculture
- Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (www.madr.ro) - 3 R&D units relevant to agriculture
- National Authority for Scientific Research (www.ancs.ro) - 1 R&D unit relevant to agriculture
- Ministry of Environment and Forestry (www.mmediu.ro) - 1 R&D unit relevant to agriculture
The bulk of the RD activity is performed by the national institutes, coordinated by the mentioned bodies. The list of national research-development institutes (NDRI) is given below, in alphabetical order:
* the list of national institutes is posted on the website of the National Authority for National Research (which confers the degree of national institute on the basis of an institutional evaluation process); the list is valid for February 2012 and is likely to be updated following the process of institutional evaluation undergoing in 2011-2012.
Besides the mentioned national institutes, RD activity is also performed within an encompassing network of research institutes and stations across the country, covering a broad range of topics of agricultural research. A comprehensive list of the units and their contact data can be found on the website of the Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences “Gheorghe Ionescu Sisesti” (www.asas.ro
Several institutes and research centres having activities specific to agricultural sector also operate under the umbrella of the Romanian Academy (www.acad.ro
Whereas the main activity of the agricultural universities remains education, they also perform RD activity either directly or through research centers. The main universities performing RD activities relevant for the agricultural sector are, in alphabetical order:
Many other universities across the country have developed departments performing RD activities specific to the agricultural sector. A comprehensive list of universities and their contact data can be found on the website of Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport (www.edu.ro).
The private R&D sector that is relevant for agriculture is less developed in Romania. There are only few private actors, mainly former public institutes that were privatized and have maintained their R&D departments.
From the point of view of financing, three groups can be distinguished among R&D actors:
a) universities – they receive core funding for the education activity (f.t.e. wages, overheads) and cover R&D expenses from projects won by projects tenders
b) unities belonging to the Romanian Academy – they receive core funding (f.t.e. wages, overheads, operational funds) and supplement it with funds from projects won by project tenders
c) all other actors – they cover all their expenses from projects won by project tenders and from own resources (extra-budgetary)
Most of the funds for R&D activity are provided by the National Authority for Scientific Research, which organizes project tenders, either direct - through various financing instruments (nucleus program, structural projects, etc.) or via the newly established National Research Council (http://www.cncs-uefiscdi.ro/
), which also has developed various financing instruments.
Also, some funds are provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, via project tenders within their sectorial programs.