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BIOFUEL MIXES
Environmentally adapted mixed diesel fuel systems containing diesel ethanol and RME

The purpose of this project is to reduce harmful emissions from diesel-powered vehicles and utilise set-aside farming land. The project concerns the formulation of environmentally adapted diesel fuels in the form of a microemulsion, where a part of the ordinary fossil diesel fuel is replaced with fuel from renewable resources (for example, bio-alcohol). These fuels are expected to render lower NOx, carbon, monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulate emissions, induce lubrication properties and lower the net carbon dioxide charge to the atmosphere. The microemulsions will be tested for physical and engine performance, which will form the criteria for further evaluation (for example, eco-, tox- and techno-economical) and thus constitute the milestones in the project. The project will provide the scientific and technological basis for the formulation of diesel-biofuel microemulsions for further exploitation by the industrial contractor. The project is in line with the EC biofuels directive.

Objectives
The objective of this project is to provide the scientific and technological basis for the formulation of a new environmentally adapted diesel fuel. The fuel concept involves replacing part of the base fuel (15% by volume) with a biofuel produced from renewable raw materials. This will give a significant decrease in net greenhouse gas emissions. The resulting fuel should have physical properties that are compatible with diesel standards and common handling practice. Thus it should be a stable solution, not an emulsion, and it should have a flash-point conforming to standards. The fuel should have a technical performance, as well as emissions, that is at least as good as those of the base fuels. It should be possible to adapt the biofuel portion to any diesel fuel to give the resulting fuel blend the desired properties. It should also be possible to use the fuel in existing vehicles, without making any significant engine modifications.

Progress to Date
The project has been successful. A fuel concept has been developed that fulfils the objectives of the project: being able to blend a fuel formulation containing 15% of renewable material, with excellent physical, handling, performance and emission properties and without the need for engine modification. This has been proven in minor emission and performance tests, as well as long-term tests on test-bench engines in a specialised engine laboratory. Further confirmatory tests are in progress. A minor field test, involving forestry machines during winter conditions, has been successfully performed. In addition, a preliminary fleet test, as a prerequisite for a large-scale demonstration fleet test, is now running in a Swedish municipality involving about 15 buses. The European Commission has not financed the long-term, field and fleet tests.
However, some important items still need to be carried out before the full advantages of the fuel blend can be brought to the market.

Results
A biofuel-diesel blend concept, Agrodiesel, has been developed, which has good performance and emission characteristics. It is also chemically-thermodynamically stable, as opposed to an emulsion fuel, and fulfils the physical and other requirements for a high-quality fuel. The fuel has been tested in engine laboratories and in field tests with excellent results.
The cost of the fuel is judged to be competitive on any given market, provided that initial tax exemptions are provided for the biocomponent on that specific market.
Market introduction on one national market (Sweden) is planned for 2004.The industrial contractor is also planning for a market launch on a broad European scale. In order to improve further the probability of success, especially on the European market, certain tasks would be beneficial to carry through:
- development and optimisation of production of the biocomponent
- construction of a pilot plant
- the adjustment of the fuel blend composition to the requirements of the production and of the market
- an evaluation of the fuel together with users and other stakeholders, i.e. a large scale fleet demonstration.
These tasks are planned to be the subject of a new IP proposal within Framework Programme 6.

Classified in NON-FOOD PRODUCTS

Scientist responsible for the project

Dr. JOHAN BERG
S:t Goeransgatan 160A Box 30192
SE-104 25 Stockholm
Sweden - SE

Phone: +46 8 657 4365
Fax: +46 8 618 6932
E-mail: johan.berg@lantmannen.se

References

Project ID QLRT-1999-01284
Organisation Agro Oil AB
Area 5.2
Start date 01 January 2000
Duration (months) 48
Total cost 798 861 €
Total EC contribution   399 430 €
Status Completed

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