Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA)
The Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) has been established by the EU to support candidate countries and potential candidate countries.The IPA exists since 2007 and replaces a number of older EU pre-accession programmes like PHARE, ISPA, SAPARD and CARDS as well as a financial instrument for Turkey.In 2014-2020, more than EUR 11 billion is available through the IPA, which will be spent on five policy areas:
• transition assistance and institution building
• socio-economic and regional development
• human resources development
• agriculture and rural development
• regional and territorial cooperation.Both candidate countries (Turkey, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia) and potential candidates (Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo under UN Security Council Resolution 1244) can apply for funding through the IPA.IPA support is provided through multi-annual programmes and requires country strategy papers: specific strategic planning documents for each beneficiary. This arrangement will prepare candidate countries to manage the European funds they will receive after obtaining EU membership, including those that fall under regional policy for 2014-20.