Zgodovina

1957 - 1988        1989 - 1993        1994 - 1999        2000 - 2006        2007 - 2013

A more comprehensive publication, can be found in here and a power-point presentation is available here.

1957-1988: The origins of EU Cohesion and Regional Policy

“We believe there is still a great deal to do in the Community in the field of regional policy. The possibilities have perhaps not been properly realised or acted on. In particular, we need to give a fresh impetus to regional policy formulated at the same level of the Community and, I should point out, with regular cooperation by Member States’ governments, which is essential if it is to succeed.”

Jean Rey, President of the European Commission 1967-1970

Financial instruments and initiatives to address economics and social imbalances at Community level did exist since the beginning of European integration but only in 1986 legal foundations introduced by the Single European Act paved the way for an integrated cohesion policy. During the period 1957-1988, the European Social Fund (ESF, since 1958), the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF, since 1962), and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, since 1975) co-financed projects which had been selected beforehand by Member States

As regards European Regional Policy, a first Communication was adopted by the European Commission in 1965, followed by the creation of the Directorate-General for Regional Policy in 1968. In 1972, the Heads of State and Government adopted conclusions in Paris which described Regional Policy as “an essential factor in strengthening the Community”. The “Thompson Report”, published by the European Commission in 1973, concluded that “although the objective of continuous expansion set in the Treaty has been achieved, its balanced and harmonious nature has not been achieved”.

The ERDF was set up in 1975 for a three-year period with a budget of €1,300 million with the objectives of correcting regional imbalances due to predominance of agriculture, industrial change and structural unemployment. In that period the ERDF could finance three actions, eligible for up to 50% of public expenditure, preferably to be carried out in national state aid areas:

  • investments in small enterprises creating at least 10 new jobs;
  • investments in infrastructure related to point 1, and
  • infrastructure investments in mountainous areas, which had to be eligible under the agriculture guidance fund, too.

Finally in 1986, the Single European Act laid the basis for a genuine cohesion policy designed to offset the burden of the single market for the less-favoured regions of the Community.

Listen to Giuseppe Caron, Vice-President of the Commission of the European Communities, about regional disparities (1962, in Italian)

 

 

 

Listen to George Thompson, Commissioner for Regional Policy, on why regional policy is necessary (1973, in English)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The beginnings of the ERDF: building an aqueduct in Sicily (Italy) in the late 1970s
The beginnings of the ERDF: building an aqueduct in Sicily (Italy) in the late 1970s.

1957
Države so podpisale Rimsko pogodbo, ki že v uvodu napoveduje krepitev gospodarske skupnosti, kot sredstvo usklajenega razvoja in zmanjševanja razlik med regijami.
1958
Ustanovitev Evropskega socialnega sklada (ESS).
1962
Ustanovitev Evropskega kmetijskega usmerjevalnega in jamstvenega sklada (EKUJS).
1975
Ustanovitev Evropskega regionalnega sklada (ERDF), ki naj bi porazdelil del evropskega proračuna med najrevnejše regije skupnosti.
1986
Enotna evropska listina (Single European Act) postavi temelje za kohezijsko politiko, ki naj bi premostila težave enotnega trga predvsem v južnih, manj razvitih državah.
1989-1993
Evropski svet v Bruslju februarja 1988 oznani začetek delovanja solidarnostnih skladov (danes jih imenujemo strukturni skladi) in zanje nameni 68 milijard ECU (cene iz leta 1997).
1992
Maastrichtska pogodba, ki je začela veljati leta 1993, določi kohezijo kot eno od prednostnih nalog Unije, poleg gospodarske in denarne unije ter enotnega trga. Na podlagi tega je bil ustanovljen kohezijski sklad za podporo projektom na področju okolja in prometa v najbolj zaostalih državah članicah.
1994-1999
Evropski svet se je v Edinburghu (decembra 1992) odločil, da bo skoraj 200 milijard evrov (cene iz leta 1997), t.j. tretjino celotnega proračuna EU, namenil za fi nanciranje sistema strukturnih skladov. Obstoječim skladom pa se je pridružil še poseben fi nančni instrument za ribištvo (FIFG).
2000-2006
Evropski svet je v Berlinu (marca 1999) ponovno reformiral strukturne sklade, ki bodo imeli na voljo 213 milijard EUR za obdobje sedmih let. Programu Phare, ki obstaja že od leta 1989, sta se pridružila predpristopni instrument (ISPA) in Posebni pristopni program za kmetijstvo in razvoj podeželja (Sapard), ki sta namenjena krepitvi razvoja držav kandidatk v srednji in vzhodni Evropi.
2000-2001
Evropski svet v Lizboni (marca 2000) sprejme strategijo, ki se osredotoči na zaposlovanje in na podlagi te strategije naj bi Unija do leta 2010 postala „najbolj konkurenčno, dinamično in na znanju temelječe gospodarstvo na svetu“. Evropski svet v Gothenburgu (junija 2001) dopolni to strategijo s trajnostnim razvojem.
2002
Na Evropskem svetu v Kopenhagnu (decembra 2002) sprejmejo sporazum o pogojih za sprejem desetih novih držav članic v Unijo.
2004
1. maja so se Evropski uniji pridružili Ciper, Češka, Estonija, Latvija, Litva, Madžarska, Malta, Poljska, Slovaška in Slovenija.
2005
Evropski svet je dosegel dogovor o proračunu za obdobje 2007–2013. Kohezijski politiki je namenjeno 347 410 milijard EUR (tekoče cene).
2006
17. maja so Svet, Evropski parlament in Komisija sprejeli proračun za obdobje 2007–2013. 1. avgusta so začeli veljati predpisi na področju strukturnih skladov za obdobje 2007–2013.
2006
6. oktobra je Svet sprejel „strateške smernice Skupnosti o kohezijski politiki“, ki so postavile temelj za novo politiko ter opredelile načela in prednostne naloge za obdobje 2007–2013.