This publication presents the results of a group of more than sixty experts. With concrete case studies, the report shows that gender differences, in terms of needs, behaviours and attitudes, play an important role in research design/content, and hence, the societal relevance and quality of research outcomes. It also reveals that these differences may vary over time and across different sectors of society, thus requiring gender specific analyses. The report provides tools and guidance that will be useful to researchers when preparing proposals for Horizon 2020. Further case studies from EU and international research can be found on the Gendered Innovations website, which was created in cooperation with Stanford University.