The European emblem (flag) may be used by third parties only if is not:
likely to create confusion between the user and the
European Union or the Council of Europe;
linked to aims or activities incompatible with the
principles and objectives of the European Union or the
Council of Europe.
In the case of EU-funded projects:
logos that are developed for projects funded by the EU, and that are not owned by the EU, may not be identical or similar to the European emblem (this includes logos that incorporate the twelve stars);
the European emblem should be given appropriate prominence when displayed in association with a logo;
contractors are exempt from the obligation to obtain prior permission from the Commission to use the emblem, but are subject to the general third-party-use restrictions mentioned above. This tacit authorization to use the European emblem implies no right of exclusive use. It does not permit the appropriation of the emblem, or of any similar trade mark or logo, whether by registration or by any other means.
For further information please see: Europa - The European Flag (see the Graphics guide to the European flag link for more details)
Horizon 2020 will support all forms of innovation. This includes innovation that results from research and development (R&D) activities. It also includes innovation that results from other activities, such as finding new uses or combinations of existing technologies or developing new business models or new ways of interacting with users. While innovation is generally understood as the commercial introduction of a new or significantly improved product or service, innovations can also be for non-commercial applications such as for better public services or for addressing social needs ('social innovation').
Horizon 2020 will strengthen the approach to innovation in a number of ways. First, it will increase support for testing, piloting, and demonstrations of new technologies, such that their potential in real world environments can be better understood.
Second, Horizon 2020 will support the market demand for innovation, including through the development of specifications for new standards and through supporting public bodies to procure R&D services or innovative products and services. New approaches are also foreseen, such as inducement prizes that reward the achievement of specific goals, encouraging a wider range of innovators to become involved. Furthermore, bottom-up activities will be strengthened, and call topic descriptions will be less prescriptive, allowing Europe's brightest and most creative minds to propose their own solutions.
Third, Horizon 2020 introduces a new SME instrument specifically designed to support SMEs to innovate.
Fourth, Horizon 2020 will scale up financial instruments in which the public sector shares the risk with the private sector in make investments available for the development of innovative companies or projects.
The European Union has a range of programmes which have been set up to support projects and initiatives in various domains across the EU and beyond.
In accordance with the Commission's guidelines on visual identity, all EU programmes must be identified exclusively by the EU emblem and the mention of the programme name.
The names of programmes, such as Horizon 2020 and FP7, will be used as verbal brands, i.e. references to them will be made without a logo.
Commission services will apply the Commission’s visual identity guidelines when communicating about EU programmes.
Beneficiaries of EU funding will use the European emblem in their communication to acknowledge the support received under EU programmes.
The guidelines mentioned below are intended for beneficiaries of EU funding and other third parties who communicate about EU programmes to show how the European Union emblem can be used in conjunction with text which highlights the fact of EU funding.
International cooperation in research and innovation is not an end in itself. It is a means for the Union to achieve its higher level objectives, in particular by:
strengthening the Union’s excellence and attractiveness in research and innovation and its economic and industrial competitiveness;
tackling global societal challenges, such as food and energy security and climate change;
supporting the Union’s external policies.
To achieve these objectives, the strategy will follow a dual approach:
Horizon 2020 will be open to participation from entities from across the world, although the approach to providing funding from the Union budget to these entities will be revised. Through this general opening, European researchers will be free to cooperate with their third country counterparts on topics of their own choice;
To complement the general opening, targeted activities will be developed where cooperation will be sought on particular topics and with well identified countries and/or regions
A number of cross-cutting issues will also be an integral part of the strategy:
Common principles for the conduct of international research and innovation activities will be developed and promoted together with key international partners, in order to create a global level playing field;
Research and innovation will make a stronger contribution to the Union's external policies.
The global research and innovation scene is changing rapidly. Emerging economies, such as China, Brazil, Russia or China, account for an increasing share of expenditure on research and innovation and are therefore gaining influence. Research and innovation in themselves are also increasingly globalised activities. The number of internationally co-authored publications is increasing, as is the international mobility of researchers. Companies are investing beyond their national borders, in particular in the emerging economies. Today's societal challenges, such as combatting climate change, securing a steady supply of energy or feeding a growing world population, can only be dealt with through global action.
The European Union is one of the world's leading regions in research and innovation. With 7% of the world's population, it accounts for 24% of the world expenditure on research, 32% of the high impact publications and 32% of the patent applications. However, as more and more knowledge is created in third countries, the Union must be in a position to access this knowledge, and the people creating it, in order to remain an attractive location for carrying out research and innovation and a partner of choice for engaging in international cooperation.
A cornerstone of the strategy is the development of multi-annual roadmaps for cooperation with key partner countries and regions. These roadmaps will provide information on the areas and partners identified for international cooperation and will therefore offer a clear programme for enhancing and focusing cooperation. They will be developed as part of the preparation for Horizon 2020.
The identification of areas for international cooperation will use the societal challenges and enabling and industrial technologies of the Horizon 2020 proposals as its starting point. The identification will be guided by making an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the Union versus the rest of the world using the following set of criteria:
Research and innovation capacity (investment, output, human resources, infrastructure);
Opportunities for and risks of getting access to new markets;
Contribution made to meeting the Union's international commitments (e.g. Millennium Development Goals);
Framework in place to engage in cooperation, including lessons learnt from previous cooperation
A differentiation of activities by country and/or region will help provide further focus to the activities. In this respect, the following groupings will be considered:
EFTA countries, enlargement countries and countries covered by the European Neighbourhood Policy: where the focus will be on fostering the integration of these countries - of their alignment with - the European Research Area; these countries will be eligible for association to Horizon 2020;
Industrialised countries and emerging economies: where the focus will be strongly on competitiveness and tackling global challenges;
Developing countries: where the focus will be to assist these countries in their socio-economic development
Horizon 2020 will be the main vehicle for implementing the Union's international cooperation actions, for instance through the following instruments:
Research and innovation projects, where the participation of third country entities is required or preferentially evaluated;
Networking between projects or project managers;
Joint initiatives involving the Union and the international partners, such as joint calls, coordinated calls, contributions from the Union to funding programmes of third countries or international organisations, specific initiatives requiring joint funding from the Union, the third country and the Member States
The implementation of the strategy will be closely coordinated with the instruments of the Union's external policies, such as the Instrument for Pre-Accession, the Development Cooperation Instrument, the European Development Fund or the Partnership Instrument.
As the Communication points out, countries such as China, Brazil, Russia, India and other economies that have grown strongly over the past years will continue to be important partners for the EU. This is reflected in the fact that all of these countries will still be able to participate in all parts of Horizon 2020, allowing their researchers to cooperate with their counterparts in the EU on topics of their choice.
Some of these countries, and in particular those where GDP is exceptionally large, will, however, no longer enjoy automatic access to EU funding, even if the country in question is classified as middle-income by the World Bank. This reflects the fact that these countries have over the past years made considerable efforts to invest in their research and innovation system and strengthen its quality. These countries are therefore now capable to cooperate with the EU on the basis of a partnership among equals. The new strategy foresees to complement this change in the approach to automatic funding by increased efforts to facilitate the funding of participants from these countries through their national channels.
It should also be noted that, as is the case with the high income countries, EU funding for these countries will be possible under exceptional circumstances, for example where there is a reciprocal agreement in place or where it is clear that the contribution of third country partner would be essential for the project to go ahead successfully.
As part of the preparation for the launch of Horizon 2020, the Commission services will start their work on identifying opportunities for international cooperation and developing the multi-annual roadmaps. These will subsequently be integrated in and implemented through Horizon 2020 and its work programmes.
There will be a strengthened steering, monitoring and evaluation of the strategy, and in particular of the international cooperation aspects of Horizon 2020, in order to ensure coherent implementation across the programme. The Commission will track progress through a set of indicators and will report every two years.
SMEs will be encouraged to participate across the Horizon 2020 programme. The SME instrument is open to highly innovative SMEs showing a strong ambition to develop, grow and internationalise regardless of whether they are high-tech or not. The SME instrument will be competitive, business-oriented and focused on creating impact, bringing high-potential innovations closer to the market. Closer to the market activities under the rules of participation has a reimbursement rate of 70%. SMEs may still take part in collaborative R&D projects where the rules of participation state the reimbursement rate is 100%. A good chunk of the Horizon 2020 budgetary target for SMEs will be delivered through the dedicated SME instrument. The exact budget allocation is still to be decided.
In general, topics specify a range of TRLs. The bulk of each project's activities are expected to be within the indicated range, and the target TRL is expected to be reached at the end of the project.
For topics where only the target TRL at the end of the project is indicated, activities are also expected to span a range of TRLs, depending on the state of the art.
As part of the Horizon 2020 programme, Swiss beneficiaries will be able to participate with an associated status in actions under the "Excellent Science" pillar, which contains the European Research Council, Future and Emerging Technologies, Research Infrastructures and the Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions as well as in actions under the specific objective “Spreading excellence and widening participation”. In addition, Switzerland will also participate as an associated country in the Euratom Programme and the ITER project.
The participation of Switzerland is effective from 15 September 2014 until 31 December 2016. Beyond 2016, association to these programmes will depend on Swiss measures to ensure the non-discrimination of Croatian citizens and researchers. If Switzerland resolves the issue of the free movement of persons by February 2017, the association will expand to the whole of Horizon 2020 including the parts not yet covered. Otherwise, the whole agreement will be automatically terminated.
The unit costs related to Management and indirect costs are calculated based on the units declared by each beneficiary. The beneficiaries may agree to redistribute those costs within the network according to their needs. As this is the internal decision of the network no information or request has to be submitted to the REA. Therefore, it is possible that e.g. the coordinator will receive a share of management and indirect costs of other beneficiaries to cover its higher managerial expenses. It is advisable to address this issue already at the proposal stage with the administrators of all beneficiaries in the project and eventually address it in the Consortium Agreement if applicable.
Yes, a project could fund a US researcher as a consultant , for example as a sub-contract for a service clearly identified in the text of the proposal. Please recall that: Subcontracting is for a particular defined task identified in the proposal. Subcontracting must be carried out according to rules set out in the financial regulations – that ensure that the best value for money is achieved. In other words, Entity A cannot decide to sub-contract a task to its subsidiary. It must show that this is the best value for money through e.g. public procurement. That said – a subcontractor can be located anywhere in the world.
Please note that there are also other possibilities under which costs of the participation from US researcher may be eligible: For instance, those costs might be considered as personnel costs under Article 6.2.A.2- Costs for natural persons working under a direct contract – if the conditions detailed in that article are fulfilled. Besides, it may also be possible that the tasks to be performed by the US researcher are in fact not part of the activities detailed in the description of work but they are necessary to implement action tasks by beneficiaries (e.g. technical support). In that case the contract with the US researcher would fall under Article 10- Purchase of goods, works and services rather than under Article 13- Implementation of action tasks by subcontractors.
In principle – yes a US researcher can be the coordinator of a project. In reality however, given that they generally do not receive any EU funding – it would make little sense for them to take on all the work associated with coordinating a project – with no financial support. Bear in mind that: the coordinator MUST sign the Grant Agreement (even if they do not receive funding themselves). They cannot be the coordinator as a third party or as a sub-contractor. Also, the Commission sends all funds for the project to the coordinator who then distributes the money amongst the other participants. It is unlikely that any non-funded partner (or their institution) would agree to such a task.
Legal entities established in countries not listed in Annex A of the Work Programme will have to cover their own participation costs.
In exceptional circumstances these entities can receive EU funding if:
there is a bilateral agreement between that country and the EU. For instance, researchers in the United States are eligible for EU funding when participating in the health programme on the basis of a reciprocal EU - US/NIH arrangement, or
the country is explicitly identified in the relevant work programme and call for proposal as being eligible for funding, or
their participation is deemed by the European Commission to be essential for carrying out the action.