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(1) Are there any reasons why there should be exceptions, other than those related to personal privacy, to the Commission’s policy of making marine data freely available and interoperable?
 what reasons?
 explain
(2) How can Member States ensure that the data they hold are safely stored, available, and interoperable?
(3) Are the seven thematic groups of the European Marine Observation and Data Network the most appropriate? Should some be combined? (e.g. geology and hydrography) or should some be divided?
 why?
(4) What should be the balance in EMODnet between providing access to raw data and developing digital map layers derived from the raw data across seabasins?
 explain
(5) Should a common platform be set up to deliver products from both GMES and EMODnet?
 why?
(6) Should the GMES marine products and service also be tailored for use by those studying climate change and environmental protection as well as those needing a near-real-time operational service?
 explain
(7) Should data that are assembled under the Data Collection Framework for a particular purpose such as a fish stock assessment be available for re-use without the requirement to obtain authorisation from the original providers of these data?
 explain
(8) Should an internet portal similar to those for EMODnet be set up to provide access to fisheries data held by Member States, as well as data assembled for particular stocks, particular fleet segments or particular fishing areas? If so, how should it be linked to EMODnet?
 explain
(9) Should control data, such as that derived from the Vessel Monitoring System that tracks fishing vessels, be made more available?

how can confidentiality concerns be resolved?

 why not?
(10) What should be the focus of EU support to new marine observation technologies? How can we extend ocean monitoring and its cost effectiveness? How can the EU strengthen its scientific and industrial position in this area?
(11) Should there be an obligation for research projects to include a provision ensuring the archiving and access to observations collected during the research project?
 why?
(12) Should the ‘push’ process whereby marine environment reports are delivered be progressively replaced by a ‘pull’ process, whereby data are made available through the internet and harvested by the competent authority using technology developed through EMODnet?
 why?
(13) What information on the behaviour of our seas and coasts can best help business and public authorities adapt to climate change?
(14) Are any additional measures required, over and above existing initiatives such as EMODnet and GMES, to enable Europe to support international initiatives on ocean data such as GOOS and GEOSS?
 what measures?
 why not?
(15) What criteria should be used to determine EU financial support of observation programmes other than those that it already supports? Can you provide examples? Could the Joint Programming Initiative for European Seas and Oceans play a role?<
(16) How could the governance of EMODnet and GMES evolve to better accommodate the need for long term sustainability?
(17) What could be the role of the Joint Research Centre and the European Environment Agency?
(18) Is a regular process needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the observation and sampling strategy for each sea-basin?
 explain
(19) What mechanism could be envisaged to manage the evaluation and assessments needed to inform the Commission, Member States and Parliament on priorities for EU support?
(20) Should data provided by private companies for licensing purposes be made publicly available?
 Under what circumstances?
 why?
(21) Should licenced offshore private sector actors be obliged to contribute to wider monitoring of the sea where this is feasible?
 what parameters might be monitored?
 why?
(22) What public-private partnership models can maximise incentives for industry to share data and investments in data as well as benefits to all stakeholders?
(23) You have now finished the questionnaire but there may be some other points that you wish to raise. This is your opportunity. You may even append a document.
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on behalf of organisation


N N
respondent org_size class 10 11
civil society - -
International Organization (UN) . 1
NGO . 1
NGO mixed of public society and enterprises . 1
charity / think tank . 1
defend the marine environment . 1
environmental foundation . 1
student 1 .
private - European industry association . 1
Private Organization with public interests missi . 1
freelance analyst 1 .
public-private . 2
renewable energy . 1
ship and freight agents . 1
large Subsea High voltage power transmission . 1
charts and info for recreational boating . 1
marine environment monitoring 1 .
oil and gas . 1
shipping . 1
surveying and mapping . 2
medium (< 250 employees) Offshore oil & Gas, MarineEnvironment protection 1 .
coastal engineering . 1
coastal protection . 1
fisheries 1 .
oil and gas . 1
renewable energy . 1
micro (<10 employees) Environmental Characterisation . 1
Management consulting 1 .
Marine educational publisher 1 .
air, land, space and miritime navigation researc 1 .
coastal and maritime policy 1 .
consultancy, sustainable marine development 1 .
environmental protection . 1
shipping . 1
software and electronics development . 1
surveying and mapping 1 2
small (<50 employees) Innovative data & technology intensive solutions . 1
Law 1 .
environmental consultant 1 .
environmental protection . 2
fisheries . 2
legal consultancy, maritime law, R&D . 1
marine biotechnology . 1
renewable energy 1 .
shipping 1 .
public - European 2 5
global . 2
local or municipal 1 1
national 16 40
regional 8 13
sea basin 1 6
research - academic (university) 21 9
private research 3 7
public research 21 16



replies on behalf of organisation
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identifier org_type suborg country who
. research private research Italy Distretto Ligure delle Tecnologie Marine
3 civil society - Belgium Seas At Risk vzw.
4 civil society - Belgium The Pew Charitable Trusts
7 civil society - Bulgaria Black Sea NGO Network
8 civil society - France Collectif Bar Européen
9 civil society - Poland Fundacja Nasza Ziemia (Our Earth Foundation)
11 civil society - Spain Oceana
14 civil society - Sweden Coalition Clean Baltic, CCB (NGO network)
15 civil society - Sweden EuroGOOS
18 civil society - Ukraine Ukrainian Independent Maritime Trade Union
19 civil society - Ukraine Ukrainian Independent Maritime Trade Union
20 civil society - United Kingdom Sea-Changers
21 civil society International Organization (UN) France Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
22 civil society NGO Spain Ecologistas en Acción
23 civil society NGO mixed of public society and enterprises Spain Int. Forum for Sustainable Underwater Activities
24 civil society charity / think tank United Kingdom new economics foundation
25 civil society defend the marine environment Spain Asociacion Plataforma"El Chorlitejo"
26 civil society environmental foundation Finland BSAG Baltic Sea Action Group (Finnish Foundation
28 private Environmental Characterisation United Kingdom Keen Marine Ltd
29 private European industry association Belgium The European Wind Energy Association - EWEA
30 private Innovative data & technology intensive solutions Spain QUALITAS Remos S.L.
35 private Private Organization with public interests missi France CNPMEM
36 private Subsea High voltage power transmission Norway Nexans Norway
38 private charts and info for recreational boating Italy Navionics Spa
40 private coastal engineering United Kingdom HR Wallingford
41 private coastal protection Italy Thetis s.p.a
44 private environmental protection Belgium Waste Free Oceans
45 private environmental protection Netherlands North Sea Foundation/Stichting De Noordzee
46 private environmental protection Spain HIDTMA S.L.
47 private fisheries Belgium MRAG LIMITED
49 private fisheries United Kingdom Scottish Fishermen's Federation
51 private legal consultancy, maritime law, R&D Spain Corporacion Maritima LL
52 private marine biotechnology United Kingdom GlycoMar limited
54 private oil and gas Belgium International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
55 private oil and gas Norway Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI)
56 private public-private France ADIS GROUP
57 private public-private France POLE MER BRETAGNE
58 private renewable energy Ireland Mainstream Renewable Power
60 private renewable energy United Kingdom Renewable Energy Association, Ocean Energy Group
61 private ship and freight agents Slovenia The slovenian shipaand freight agents associatio
62 private shipping Italy CONS.A.R.
64 private software and electronics development United Kingdom PCM2U Ltd
65 private surveying and mapping Belgium Comité de Liaison des Géomètres Européens (CLGE)
66 private surveying and mapping France Ordre des géomètres-experts
67 private surveying and mapping France Magic Instinct Software
69 private surveying and mapping United Kingdom Proteus Europe Ltd
70 public European Belgium European Marine Board
71 public European Belgium JPI OCEANS
73 public European Finland Eurogeosurveys, Brussels
74 public European France The European Straits Initiative
76 public European Spain SOCIB - Balearic Islands Observ Forecast System
77 public global Monaco International Hydrographic Organization
78 public global United Kingdom UN Group of Experts of the Regular Process
80 public local or municipal United Kingdom Argyll and Bute Council
82 public national Cyprus Cyprus Tourism Organisation
83 public national Cyprus Department of Antiquities, Cyprus
84 public national Denmark National Survey and Cadastre
85 public national Finland Prime Minister's Office, Finland
86 public national Finland Hydrographic Office, Finnish Transport Agency
88 public national France Ifremer
89 public national France UBO/ France Marine Universities network
90 public national France SHOM
93 public national Germany koord. Stellungnahme Deutsche Bundesregierung
94 public national Germany VLA, Associaton of German state Archaeologists
95 public national Germany BKM
96 public national Germany German Aquaculture Association e.V.
97 public national Greece Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service (HNHS)
98 public national Ireland DCENR, Geological Survey of Ireland
99 public national Italy Conisma, University of Rome, Magic Project
100 public national Italy Gruppo Nazionale di Oceanografia Operativa
103 public national Italy OGS
104 public national Italy Italian Hydrographic Office
105 public national Italy italian coast guard
106 public national Latvia Ministry of Transport of the Republic of Latvia
107 public national Malta Government of Malta
108 public national Morocco Abdelmalek ESSAADI University (FP-larache)
109 public national Netherlands Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment
110 public national Netherlands TNO - Geological Survey of the Netherlands
111 research public research Netherlands Deltares, Postbox 177, 2600 MH Delft
112 public national Norway Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, Norway
113 public national Norway Norwegian Hydrographic Service
115 public national Poland PL Ministry of Transport & Maritime Economy
116 public national Portugal General Directory for Maritime Policy
117 public national Portugal Instituto Hidrográfico (IHPT)
119 public national Romania Senate of Romanian Parliament
120 public national Slovenia Institute of the Republic of Slovenia for NAture
123 public national Spain Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment
124 public national Spain PLataforma Oceánica de Canarias (PLOCAN)
130 public national Sweden Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institut
131 public national Sweden Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management
132 public national Sweden Swedish Maritime Adm - Hydrographic Office
134 public national United Kingdom Government of United Kingdom
135 public national United Kingdom General Lighthouse Authorities
136 public regional Belgium Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ)
137 public regional France MAREMED Partnership; ww.maremed.eu
139 public regional Germany Ministry of Economic Affairs Schleswig-Holstein
142 public regional Italy Regione Emilia-Romagna (DG Envinronment)
144 public regional Portugal Azores Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs
145 public regional Spain Consejería Agr. Pesca y Medio Ambiente Andalucía
147 public regional Spain OBSERVATORIO AMBIENTAL GRANADILLA
151 public regional Sweden Region Västra Götaland, Sweden
152 public regional Sweden County administrative board of Vasterbotten
153 public regional United Kingdom Countryside Council for Wales
154 public regional United Kingdom Marine Scotland, Scottish Government
155 public regional United Kingdom Marine South East
156 public sea basin Denmark ICES
157 public sea basin Finland GTK - Geological Survey of Finland
158 public sea basin Finland HELCOM Secretariat
159 public sea basin France MedPAN
160 public sea basin Norway North Sea Commission Marine Resource group
162 public sea basin United Kingdom OSPAR Commission
165 research academic (university) Belgium MARE: Marine Research group University of Liege
170 research academic (university) France Université Nice Sophia Antipolis
172 research academic (university) Georgia Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
176 research academic (university) Netherlands IMARES
178 research academic (university) Norway NTNU
179 research academic (university) Norway Department of Earth Science, Univ. of Bergen
180 research academic (university) Norway Institute of Marine Research
181 research academic (university) Poland University of Gdansk
190 research academic (university) United Kingdom Fisheries&Conservation Science Group,Bangor Univ
194 research private research France SeaDataNet Research Infrastructure (DG-R FP7)
196 research private research Italy Vitrociset SpA - R&D Corporate R&D Center
197 research private research Norway SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture Ltd.
197 research private research Norway SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture Ltd.
201 research private research Spain AZTI-Tecnalia (Marine Research Division)
202 research private research United Kingdom Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science
203 research public research Belgium Flanders Heritage Agency
207 research public research Finland Finnish Meteorological Institute
208 research public research France BRGM Marine Geology
209 research public research France IFREMER & chair of DG/ENV/GES TG ML group
211 research public research Germany PANGAEA-AWI-MARUM
212 research public research Germany Thünen-Institute of Sea Fisheries
213 research public research Germany Alfred Wegener Institute
214 research public research Greece HCMR/Institute of Oceanography-HNODC
217 research public research Italy Italian Long-term Ecosystem Research network
223 research public research Italy CNR-INSEAN Italian National Ship Model Basin
226 research public research Netherlands Nederlandse Elasmobranchen Vereniging
227 research public research Norway Institute of Marine Research, Norway
228 research public research Norway Geological Survey of Norway (NGU)
229 research public research Poland Maritime Institute in Gdansk
238 research public research United Kingdom National Oceanography Centre, UK
239 public regional United Kingdom English Heritage
240 public national Ireland INTER-DEPARTMENT MARINE CO-ORDINATION GROUP
241 private shipping Netherlands Marine Strategy Navigation Group (MSNG)
242 public national France Autorités françaises



The SGPlot Procedure



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Pie chart of availability



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(1) Are there any reasons why there should be exceptions, other than those related to personal privacy, to the Commission’s policy of making marine data freely available and interoperable?
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identifier official availability respondent class who explained
29 on behalf of organisation yes private European industry association The European Wind Energy Association - EWEA The private sector is producing a large amount of data. If it is good that data collected become publically available, their release should nevertheless be done in timely manner and under specified timescales agreed with the developers who collected and paid for them. This will ensure that commercial sensitivity is maintained and commercial agreements not affected. Data collected from public funded research should be made easily and freely accessible.
35 on behalf of organisation yes private Private Organization with public interests missi CNPMEM - Certaines pêcheries sont constituées d’un nombre très restreint de navires, ce qui permettrait de les différencier facilement, rompant ainsi le secret commercial ; - Mauvaise utilisation ou interprétation des données que pourraient avoir certaines personnes, qui ne connaissent pas très bien le secteur de la pêche.
40 on behalf of organisation yes private coastal engineering HR Wallingford Although the principal of making marine data freely available and interoperable is a good aspiration, there are practical, technical and commercial considerations as to why there needs to be exceptions. The overarching problem is that “freely available and interoperable” is abstract in its scope and therefore difficult and impractical to implement.
54 on behalf of organisation yes private oil and gas International Association of Oil & Gas Producers It is important to determine which data can be released and under which conditions. We do not support "free access" to gll data. Some data should not be available for re-use without the prior authorisation from the original data providers. Marine data should be interoperable but making data freely available could impact commercial interests and may not be compatible with existing licensing regimes for oil and gas activities. For the oil and gas sector, geophysical surveys are critical.
58 on behalf of organisation yes private renewable energy Mainstream Renewable Power A good starting point may be to focus on data collection by public bodies for the public task in the context of the INSPIRE Directive which has data interoperability (and associate data services) at its core. INSPIRE also addresses some of the data policy issues around making data “freely available” The need for an Integrated Sea Information System, ISIS, to identify Risk Surfaces has been identified by organisations from across Europe including commercial, public and academic organisation
61 on behalf of organisation yes private ship and freight agents The slovenian shipaand freight agents associatio To be seen to all who are in the shipping bussiness.
70 on behalf of organisation yes public European European Marine Board There is growing consensus that freely available and interoperable marine data will drive a knowledge-based society and underpin evidence-based management of our seas and oceans. Incentives are required to overcome current restrictions to sharing data. These include correct accreditation to data producers, traceability through developing common standards for metadata/data formats, analysis of the academic publication requirements and public-private partnerships.
73 on behalf of organisation yes public European Eurogeosurveys, Brussels In principle, data collected in MS or EU funded projects should not be subject to access restrictions and should be available as soon as possible. When data are commercially sensitive there is, however, a case for a period of confidentiality (or restriction) on data release. A period of time for academics to prepare publications should be allowed. Data confidentiality is sometimes an issue of national security. Interoperable, freely available and accessible data drives the knowledge economy.
77 on behalf of organisation yes public global International Hydrographic Organization The IHO promotes the interoperability of marine data through standardization. Conditions of access are a matter of national policy and may vary from country to country. The following reasons may be incompatible with free availability of data: - limitations in the technical capabilities to provide access to large volume of data - national security concerns (part of the data is classified), - rights of third parties - business models requiring HOs to generate direct revenues
78 on behalf of organisation yes public global UN Group of Experts of the Regular Process Most UN Member States clearly wish to protect defence information. Cooperation of commercial enterprises on commercially non-sensitive information is only likely if commercially sensitive can be protected. Experience has shown that researchers will cooperate better if they are allowed a reasonable time to publish
83 on behalf of organisation yes public national Department of Antiquities, Cyprus With regards to antiquities (e.g. ship wrecks) the dissemination of knowledge to the wider public on the location of such findings dramatically enhances looting in Cyprus. Currently the mechanisms for protecting such sites in the sea basin are insufficient. We consider that such data should be screened by the competent authorities who will decide what data should be freely available according to the state's laws.
84 on behalf of organisation yes public national National Survey and Cadastre Safety at sea and SOLAS are our focus in publishing timely and accurate tools for navigation in Danish waters. Mariners are legally required to use updated official nautical charts; free data distribution would limit authoritative control of chart contents. Funding needs for collecting, processing and distributing nautical charts restrict the ability to distribute their data contents freely. Raw bathymetric data of larger areas are considered to be restricted information due to security.
85 on behalf of organisation yes public national Prime Minister's Office, Finland Please see the e-mail version of our response (not enough space here to explain)
86 on behalf of organisation yes public national Hydrographic Office, Finnish Transport Agency High density bathymetric data is partially classified. Data used for safety of navigation purposes should be distributed only via well-established HO authorized procedures.
90 on behalf of organisation yes public national SHOM The IHO promotes the interoperability of marine data through standardization. Conditions of access are a matter of national policy and may vary from country to country. The following reasons may be incompatible with free availability of data: - national security concerns, - rights of third parties (re-use of data not collected under the authority of HOs ), and - business models requiring HOs to generate direct revenues from the distribution of their products rather than rely on governme
93 on behalf of organisation yes public national koord. Stellungnahme Deutsche Bundesregierung Marine Daten sollten möglichst interoperabel und frei verfügbar sein, aber es sollte auch Ausnahmen geben. Unter bestimmten Umständen sollte der Zugriff auf marine Daten eingeschränkt werden. Neben Datenschutz sind die nationale Sicherheit (einschließlich Verteidigung) und wirtschaftliche Interessen (Betriebs- und Geschäftsgeheimnisse) zu nennen. Aufgrund der Größenbeschränkung dieses Textfelds finden Sie unsere umfassende Stellungnahme zu Frage 1 unter dem Punkt 23 ("some other points ...")
96 on behalf of organisation yes public national German Aquaculture Association e.V. because of activities, frame-work and policy-making related to sustainable aquaculture, biotechnology, environmental themes and maritime technology
97 on behalf of organisation yes public national Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service (HNHS) HNHS is the only official organization of the Greek state responsible for collecting hydrographic–oceanographic data and compiling nautical charts and other aids to navigation.A considerable part of its operational costs is covered from sales of products and data.So, regulations concerning product disposal policy,copyright and international agreements with foreign countries and organizations should be considered.Moreover,national security matters for some kind of data should also be considered.
98 on behalf of organisation yes public national DCENR, Geological Survey of Ireland In principle, data collected on MS or EU funded projects should not be subject to access restrictions and should be openly available.Where data is acquired by commercial companies there may be sensitivity/competitive advantage issues, in such cases procedures should be explored to devise incentives for sharing information.Where marine environmental data is acquired in compliance with e.g. a licensing application, the Competent Authority can receive data with temporarily defined restrictions.
106 on behalf of organisation yes public national Ministry of Transport of the Republic of Latvia Latvia supports the Commission’s policy, according to which marine data should be interoperable, accessible and free of restrictions on use. At the same time Latvia notes that, in addition to conditions on the privacy protection and commercial data protection, precautionary principle on underwater cultural heritage, in order to prevent irreversible destruction of these objects and looting.
107 on behalf of organisation yes public national Government of Malta Please refer to comments in Box 23.
109 on behalf of organisation yes public national Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment Note on effectiveness of policy for making data freely available: accepting that there are differences in data access policy will encourage much more data providers to come forward by publicly sharing metadata and discovery services because these will enable users to identify interesting data sets and their data providers for possible further negotiation about data access and use.
110 on behalf of organisation yes public national TNO - Geological Survey of the Netherlands Public release of data collected for commercial purposes and paid by private parties should be regulated by introducing a small number of moratorium categories. Moratoria should be as short as possible. Public release of data collected for fundamental scientific purposes should not be mandatory until a two-year time window expires. Data that cannot be QCd (for example because of insufficient metadata) should not be released publicly.
113 on behalf of organisation yes public national Norwegian Hydrographic Service "Others" related to agreements with third parties and national data policies.
115 on behalf of organisation yes public national PL Ministry of Transport & Maritime Economy oprócz wymienionych w dokumencie wyjatków nalezy brac takze pod uwage np. potrzeby ochrony danych zwiazanych z obronnoscia (NATO). Bezwzgledne prawo do dostepu do informacji moze ingerowac w interesy PCz w zakresie bezpieczenstwa i wiedzy o posiadanych zasobach naturalnych. Powszechne udostepnianie pewnego rodzaju danych moze napotkac opór PCz w zwiazku z tym, ze chronia lub kontroluja mozliwosci badan i pozyskiwania danych (np dla ropopochodnych, o poziomie zanieczyszczen, marynarka woj. etc)
117 on behalf of organisation yes public national Instituto Hidrográfico (IHPT) IHPT, as a National Hydrographic Office (NHO) from the navy, is responsible for the collection of data for the production and update of official nautical cartography, as well as for the support of naval operations (military use). Besides that, IHPT as other NHO in Europe, needs to produce revenues from products and services as substantial part of its budget to maintain its financial autonomy.
123 on behalf of organisation yes public national Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment There might be sensitive biodiversity data (breeding sites, location of vulnerable species, etc.) that could endanger conservation if disclosed. Also, data from archeological sites or other maritime safety information shouldn't be made public.
132 on behalf of organisation yes public national Swedish Maritime Adm - Hydrographic Office In Sweden all bathymetricdata within the territorial waters are classified due to military reasons. Bathymetric data can be released in specific areas after an application to the Swedish Armed Forces. The Swedish Hydrograhic Office is not financed by public funding. All funding is generated from fairway fees paid by merchant shipping as well as sales of products and data. If marine data would be freely available in Swedish waters it would require public fundings.
134 on behalf of organisation yes public national Government of United Kingdom The UK Government agrees with the aim of increasing the amount of freely-available marine data. There are exceptions, for example: (i) on account of national security considerations; (ii) some UK public marine data are subject to Trading Fund rules. The UK Government looks for these provisions to be continued, and; (iii) commercial sensitivity. DCF requirements for non-disclosure of primary data, i.e. on individual entities or establishments may also be relevant for some other resource data.
242 on behalf of organisation yes public national Autorités françaises Les Autorités françaises sont favorables à une meilleure disponibilité et interopérabilité des données relatives au milieu marin, dans le but de favoriser l'innovation et la création de valeur ajoutée par le traitement desdites données. Toutefois, elles estiment que ne peuvent être rendues librement accessibles les données : - pour lesquelles des tiers détiennent des droits de propriété intellectuelle (par exemple dans la cadre d’échanges internationaux de données entre services hydrographiques) ; - concernant la sûreté de l’État, la défense nationale, la sécurité publique ; - mettant en cause le secret statistique ou le secret commercial. Cette question de la confidentialité se pose de manière particulièrement aigüe pour des données de nature stratégique (e.g. liées à l’exploitation de ressources biologiques ou minérales) ou avec de forts potentiels de valorisation (e.g. biotechnologies marines) ; - concernées par la protection des données personnelles ; - acquises par des établissements de recherche dans le cadre de projets de recherche, dans la limite d’une durée nécessaire à la valorisation scientifique des résultats (typiquement de 2 à 5 ans). Par ailleurs, l'usage des données soulève la question de la responsabilité éventuelle du fournisseur de données contre qui un utilisateur pourrait se retourner après une utilisation malencontreuse (e.g. données de profondeur qui auraient servi à produire une carte non validée, données sur des espèces sensibles qui bloqueraient / retarderaient / autoriseraient un projet d'aménagement…). Il est nécessaire de clarifier ces questions de responsabilité avant tout mise à disposition libre de données. Enfin il pourrait être utile de mener une réflexion stratégique sur le phénomène « Big data » qui conduit à la prolifération d’outils pour l’exploitation des données mises en ligne et accessibles gratuitement. Ces données pourront donc servir aussi bien le développement de l’Europe que le développement de concurrents de l’E
136 on behalf of organisation yes public regional Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) Data with commercial sensitivity and data collected for research purposes, and which are collected in an EU context may be subject to previously defined contracting (e.g. time and scope of ‘embargo’). The nature and quality of the data to be released needs to be defined and a mechanism is needed to verify and validate this. Data feeding information flow require quality control. Data should be freely available and mechanisms are needed to assure quality control, updating, redistribution of data
139 on behalf of organisation yes public regional Ministry of Economic Affairs Schleswig-Holstein The Commission's policy that marine data should be relevant, accessible, free of charge and free of use restrictions is watching critically, at least in individual cases for companies and research: For information on which third parties intellectual property rights, public access without the agreement these third parties are granted.
144 on behalf of organisation yes public regional Azores Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs Other: protection of natural resources (living and non-living). Data that belongs to a Region or Member State, obtained through regional/national financing, should be managed according to the interests of the Member State, may these be economic, social or environmental.
145 on behalf of organisation yes public regional Consejería Agr. Pesca y Medio Ambiente Andalucía La legislación española (ley 27/2006, de 18 de Julio, artículo 13) contempla, además de todos los consultados en el cuestionario, otros dos supuestos que justificarían, en algunos casos, que la información no se distribuya abiertamente: Información relacionada con causas o asuntos sujetos a procedimiento judicial o en trámite ante los tribunales Información cuya distribución pueda afectar a la protección del medio ambiente, en particular la que se refiera a la localización de las especies
147 on behalf of organisation yes public regional OBSERVATORIO AMBIENTAL GRANADILLA There are ways in which data can be temporary embargoed; allowing some fixed time for scientists to produce their research papers. Perhaps this option is worth mentioning (for example, in general DNA databases) as open data access may become a drawback for the scientific community in many cases.
153 on behalf of organisation yes public regional Countryside Council for Wales Yes - where making the detailed location of a threatened species or habitat freely available could result in its deliberate harm. However this could be resolved by simply making decisions about at what resolution to make data concerning certain protected habitats and species freely available (e.g. what level of detail is provided in the EUNIS habitat classification maps) or at what scale species data are released at. Mechanisms already exist at a national level such as the NBN Gateway or MESH seabed maps where these issues have already been accounted for. These mechanisms must be put in place to ensure that the integrity of marine ecosystems is not jeopardised by improved and more widely available knowledge of the marine environment. In principle the idea of making marine data freely available in order to increase our knowledge base for more effective marine environmental management is welcomed. However, it is important to be mindful of the limitations of certain types of data and ensure that the data is fit for the intended purpose. Incorrect interpretation of data has the potential to lead to misinformed management of resources and therefore may result in reduced environmental protection. CCW cautions that comprehensive information needs to accompany the data to ensure that the data is clearly documented and not inappropriately used for analysis in a way it was not intended. CCW feels that it would still be very difficult to implement a ‘commission policy’ for data collected by others, such as research ventures or commercial operations, without a legal basis for this. Commercial sensitivity may not enable data to be readily accessed (or freely available) and there would need to be extensive negotiations and agreements made with the commercial sector in order to make this a workable policy. The green paper does not really explore the current problems associated with data flow when referring to the private sector, or how any data sharing agreements might be put into
154 on behalf of organisation yes public regional Marine Scotland, Scottish Government In principle Marine Scotland agrees with the aim of increasing the amount of data that is freely available and its inter-operability. However there may need to be some flexibility in this principle, for example, taking into account need for national security; allowing scientific authors to report in papers before needing to share all their data; or allowing a decision on a commercial development to be taken before a developer releases all the possible data into the public domain.
155 on behalf of organisation yes public regional Marine South East Data resulting from publicly-funded work should be made freely available, but this should not necessarily apply to privately-funded data gathering. If we want to see investment in sensor networks and data infrastructure then we have to see a market for data. This necessarily involves pricing.
239 on behalf of organisation yes public regional English Heritage Close attention must be given to ensuring compatibility with requirements for data access such as demonstrated by the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive
157 on behalf of organisation yes public sea basin GTK - Geological Survey of Finland Data collected in MS and/or EU funded projects should in principle be freely open access without restrictions, on the condition that: -researchers have time to publish their results (1 - 2 yrs) -if the data is commercially sensitive it should either be restricted for a short period of time or if necessary partially restricted -environmental issues such as protection of rare/sensitive species -national security (important regarding resolution of bathymetry data in some MS)
162 on behalf of organisation yes public sea basin OSPAR Commission Data collected may have commercial sensitivity in regard of e.g. marine resources in view of competing demands for such resources. OTHER: e.g. Directive 2003/4/EC, Art. 4 or equivalent legislation outside EU.OSPAR is committed to help pro-actively in facilitating data and information sharing for the benefit of all those involved in work of the regional seas conventions and that underpinning EU Member States marine strategies. The OSPAR Convention Article 9 (more explanation available)
176 on behalf of organisation yes research academic (university) IMARES As a contract research organisation we have to take into account the data policies and other demands of those we work for, as well as our own interests.
178 on behalf of organisation yes research academic (university) NTNU Marine data should not be held back to allow time to publish. Publication takes time, and often result in data being obsolete.
194 on behalf of organisation yes research private research SeaDataNet Research Infrastructure (DG-R FP7) Every data should be free of access (“Open and free data policy”) at national and European levels and after of certain period of data treatment by scientists. Nevertheless, one should notice that data access and data sharing rights can present some restrictions which can depend on: - Time needed to publish (new research collected data; limited moratorium) - National and international legislation (Defence, Mining Code…); - Contractual obligations; - Commercial values (natural resources…).
196 on behalf of organisation yes research private research Vitrociset SpA - R&D Corporate R&D Center In this contest could be better to speak in terms of commercial interest at local level. The dissemination, without rules, of the economical capability of a generical area, obtained throught the data analysis, could attract too much interest from external entities "destroying" the equilibriums on which that zone bases itself.
197 on behalf of organisation yes research private research SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture Ltd. Marine data should not be held back to allow time to publish. Publication takes time, and often result in data being obsolete.
197 on behalf of organisation yes research private research SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture Ltd. Marine data should not be held back to allow time to publish. Publication takes time, and often result in data being obsolete.
201 on behalf of organisation yes research private research AZTI-Tecnalia (Marine Research Division) Even in the case of public funded projects, funded organizations must provide part of the budget (i.e. 25%, 50%). Hence, a period of at least 2 years should be provided for publication of data
202 on behalf of organisation yes research private research Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science Some datasets, such as the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey are not funded at all by the European Commission (though the CPR survey receives some national UK support) but rely on disparate sources to provide funding and enable collection of the data. Nevertheless, these data are still used for reporting and assessment purposes at EU and national levels by multiple member staets. However if they were made freely available the survey would be in jeopardy as there would be less incentive t
203 on behalf of organisation yes research public research Flanders Heritage Agency Allowing time to put in place an suitable management regime for the newly discovered heritage.
211 on behalf of organisation yes research public research PANGAEA-AWI-MARUM Yes – allowing time to publish: This exception is only relevant for pure research data collections. There should be well-defined embargo times preinstalled via data management plans during application phase to give researchers time to publish their results based on the data before releasing them to public.
213 on behalf of organisation yes research public research Alfred Wegener Institute This exception is only relevant for research data collections. There should be well-defined embargo times preinstalled via data management plans during application phase to give researchers time to publish their results based on the data before releasing them to public.
214 on behalf of organisation yes research public research HCMR/Institute of Oceanography-HNODC HCMR in alignment with the EU policy and International Organizations/Programmes directions supports the timely, free and unrestricted data access. Its data system (maintained by HNODC) provides on-line access to public available marine data and makes them interoperable with the EU and other global systems such as SeaDataNet, EMODNET, IODE/ODP. However, HCMR respects the policy of its National and EU funded projects and applies access restrictions at specific areas for national security reasons.
217 on behalf of organisation yes research public research Italian Long-term Ecosystem Research network Marine data should all be interoperable. There might be some exceptions in allowing access to specific types of data,e.g., in case of rare and protected species, Member States and/or thematic communities might want to keep the data accessible only to authorized users. "Allowing time to publish”: the Commission could set a best practices document or guidelines to standardize such an approach and possibly also some incentives for the rapid results dissemination.
50 individual reply yes private freelance analyst   For generic sites (low specificity index), the marginalized nature of offshore make point source identification of infrastructure unacceptable because of risk to sabotage and theft; ontogeny In this case: all data given; licence given for areas of tens of square kilometers and zonation detail removed. Where landmark features are present (pit or peak) then special regime applies; special regime implies plurality of stakeholders with ministerial level mentorage and EU development time planning
91 individual reply yes public national   Ecological sensitivity or commercial sensitivity mainly (protected species, pristine site, competition between fishermen,...)
128 individual reply yes public national   Sometimes there are commercial interest in certain data streams or even subject to scientific peer review or university - scientific interest in publishing articles in specialised magazines and the owners of the data require certain confidenciality before providing the data. In general the pruducts derived from the raw data should not have any confidentiality restriction
129 individual reply yes public national   Financial support and purpose of research recomend some kind of privacy (temporarily) to protect proposals of bilateral or multilateral memorandum of understanding. Sometimes are due to researches related to submarine national heritage or security in the frame of Cultural or Defense Policy (mainly high resolution seismic sections and multibeam bathymetry/side scan sonar or photo/video images).
138 individual reply yes public regional   Wenn Daten zu Munitionsversenkungsgebieten frei verfügbar wären, kann dies zu Sicherheitsproblemen führen. Wrackse, archäologische Stätten, könnten geplündert und zerstört werden, wenn die Daten frei verfügbar wären. Störung der Totenruhe. Teure Messgeräte könnten gestohlen werden, wenn deren Position öffentlich bekannt wäre. Durch die freie Verfügbarkeit kann die Verlässlichkeit der Informationen beeinträchtigt werden. Besonders geschützte Habitate könnten gezielt zerstört werden.
143 individual reply yes public regional   Some underwater cultural heritage sites might be so voulnerable to eg. Looting and other hazards, that immediate publication of position etc might not be regarded positively until the site has been properly asessed by cultural heritage institutions.
146 individual reply yes public regional   There should be a certain extra protection of endangered species.
163 individual reply yes research academic (university)   There should be a regulation for data collected for commercial purposes and paid by private parties. Quality control of the data is necessary before public release.
174 individual reply yes research academic (university)   While we all want completely uninhibited access to data, we also recognize its economic and scientifi value. Hence, we must find a reasonable balance between both - otherwise, opening up data will fail due to the lack of keepers and stakeholders. Of course, restrictions (eg, timespans of confidentiality) should be kept at the absolute minimum.
177 individual reply yes research academic (university)   in case the marine data would be potentially create (false) alarmism before confirmation of real values of the data and/or otherwise would be cause of political diplomatic issues (war?)
183 individual reply yes research academic (university)   other reasons: lack of measures/enforcement in place to ensure the conservation of the sesnsitive sites revealed in high resolution data.
188 individual reply yes research academic (university)   1. The national current legislation regulating data access in countries which do not belong to EU can differ from the EU legislation. Institutions from these countries will have to keep to the legislation of their country. 2.Of course, allowing time to publish, as a rule, is relevant for data collected for research purposes. However, this period should be reasonably limited.
193 individual reply yes research academic (university)   There is public benefit in making marine data observations publicly available, whether initially obtained by government agencies, universities, or commercial industry. For real-time services, the data are in the public domain very quickly, and commercial interests are generally not a constraint on further access. Where an archival data set is obtained by a commercial organisation they will regard the need to disseminate the data as an extra cost and loss of commercial advantage.
204 individual reply yes research public research   Data on the location of some extremely valuable archaeological heritage should be kept hidden in order to be able to install effective protection and management measures.
206 individual reply yes research public research   Publising of some data (excetions and rare) can influence on national security. Researchers have to have some time as grace period for publish data, because they spent lota a time and hard work for data collectig, validation and analysing
210 individual reply yes research public research   As researchers we are obliged to write scientific papers on the basis of observational or modeling data because our funding by institutional funds or external funds to a large extent relies on scientific reputation. Data gathered from observation are the basis of such publications; the open access to such data must be guaranteed after a suitable period of time for scientific exploitation
215 individual reply yes research public research   Marine data should be interoperable and free, when certain conditions are met: national security, commercial sensitivity and allowing time to publish issues should be taken into account. Moreover, often in order to avoid misuse of data, a certain distinction should be made between original data and data products, which should be provided instead.
216 individual reply yes research public research   Particular attention should be paid to establish access rules to data relevant to national security and commercial activities to avoid conflicts between neighbouring Countries. Possible measures: registered access to critical data, signature of agreements ruling data access and use, distribution of low resolution products. For research purposes: besides allowing time needed to publish the results (at least 2 yrs), assuring proper acknowledgement of data originators also after time.
232 individual reply yes research public research   If data is really important for national security then it makes sense that it is not available. Otherwise, all the other data should be made available after a moratorium period given to the people who collected it, in order for them to have a chance to publish it first, this considering that it is data collected as part of research projects.
235 individual reply yes research public research   Some information is commercially sensible for the economic interests of a given MS (for instances, fisheries information). Some of the information potentially available has been obtained trough national (MS) funding and by researchers and technicians paid by MS National budget. Some priority must be given in those cases to the institution / researchers and technicians to exploit the data / information. 2-3 years of priority usage of data could be enough.
236 individual reply yes research public research   Research funded by the tax payers should be freely available to all research workers and organizations. However due regard to the investment of intellect, effort and time by the observers, their laboratories and agencies must be maintained to avoid creaming off the most valuable results by opportunistic, commercial or not, concerns with no input to the original work. On the other hand we must leave behind the tradition of hiding data away in drawers, just because they are "ours". They are not.
237 individual reply yes research public research   SUGGESTED CORRECTIONS: 1) Marine data should be free to all scientific organizations and governments’ bodies funding the data. Only later to other bodies/countries. see file. 2) Research data should be made available after a lapse of time is warranted, to allow investigators to publish their results. Typically the embargo should last 2 years. 3) On the other hand, service data, or data funded on EU operational budget should be made freely available and interoperable in real or near-real time.



(2) How can Member States ensure that the data they hold are safely stored, available, and interoperable?
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identifier official respondent class who ms_data
14 on behalf of organisation civil society - Coalition Clean Baltic, CCB (NGO network) - Data should be made available with the best level of detail available and not arbitrarily aggregated. Any aggregation of data should be in addition to the publication of raw data - Data should be made available in formats commonly used, both for easier access and comparisons over time and between Member States and it should not be in PDF formats! - Data should be assembled at one central location but could also be presented at regional level and it should be in English at least in part to explain the data and categories for example
9 on behalf of organisation civil society - Fundacja Nasza Ziemia (Our Earth Foundation) - Where legislation permits it, data should be made available without any unnecessary delays; - Data should be made available with the greatest level of detail available and not arbitrarily aggregated. Any aggregation of data should be in addition to the publication of raw data with the greatest level of granularity; - Data should, as far as possible, be made available in commonly used formats to facilitate comparisons over time and between one Member State and another. - Data should be published in an open access format, e.g. cvs (currently, some Member States choose to publish certain data, such as funding under the EU Fisheries Fund, in pdf format which makes analysis restrictive); - Data should be assembled at one central location (e.g. not at the regional level); - Information about the dataset itself, including descriptions of categories, information how to use the databank, etc., should be displayed in major EU languages (and at least in English).
11 on behalf of organisation civil society - Oceana A common datawarehouse safeguarded and curated by EEA or JRC, or both would be indeed appropriate. Spatial Data Infrastructures currently operating are not flexible and clear enough for it. The excess in number of these SDIs and many duplicities seem that a sort of central, wider and publicly shared warehouse for the marine spatial information would be more than desirable. Where legislation permits it, data should be made available without any unnecessary delays. Also, it should be made available with the highest level of detail available and not arbitrarily aggregated. Any aggregation of data should be in addition to the publication of raw data with the greatest level of granularity. This data should, as far as possible, be made available in commonly used formats to facilitate comparisons over time and between one Member State, moreover this information should be published in an open access format, e.g. csv, gml, or the widely used shp, among others.
7 on behalf of organisation civil society - Black Sea NGO Network By investing on national level in the collection of data using common data standards and quality control procedures and adopting clear rules for storage and access to the data.
8 on behalf of organisation civil society - Collectif Bar Européen Les données devraient être publiques et accessibles au plus grand nombre
3 on behalf of organisation civil society - Seas At Risk vzw. Member States need to cooperate on a regional level to agree on sampling procedures, data collection routines, and storage mechanisms. The commission must overview this process to align these procedures among all regional approaches to make data interoperable among the regions. All data should be stored in an easily accessible file format allowing for the extraction of data from all regional approaches without impediments to enable an easy cross-evaluation. If it is not possible beforehand either for the Commission to supervise the different regional approaches or for the Member States in the regions to agree on the necessary measures, a centralised approach such as the current Data Collection Framework (DCF) for fisheries data should be developed. Any storage of data, access procedures and guidelines necessary for the use of the data need to be documented in clear language in several, if not all European languages.
15 on behalf of organisation civil society - EuroGOOS The model of national and regional data centres which are networked at a European level following agreed (European or International) standards has proved efficient and should be strengthened in the future. EuroGOOS through its regional systems (ROOSs) has developed the concept of regional data assembly centres and portals that interconnect national facilities for near real time data exchange. European initiatives such as EMODnet should encourage Member states to increase the availability of data through strengthening of their national networks and infrastructures.
19 on behalf of organisation civil society - Ukrainian Independent Maritime Trade Union There must be pointed responcible bodies on national level
20 on behalf of organisation civil society - Sea-Changers Where legislation permits it, data should be made available without any unnecessary delays; Data should be made available with the greatest level of detail available and not arbitrarily aggregated. Any aggregation of data should be in addition to the publication of raw data with the greatest level of granularity; Data should, as far as possible, be made available in commonly used formats to facilitate comparisons over time and between one Member State and another. Data should be published in an open access format, e.g. cvs (currently, some Member States choose to publish certain data, such as funding under the EU Fisheries Fund, in pdf format which makes analysis restrictive); Data should be assembled at one central location (e.g. not at the regional level); Information about the dataset itself, including descriptions of categories, information how to use the databank, etc., should be displayed in major EU languages (and at least in English).
4 on behalf of organisation civil society - The Pew Charitable Trusts • Where legislation permits it, data should be made available without any unnecessary delays; • Data should be made available with the greatest level of detail available and not arbitrarily aggregated. Any aggregation of data should be in addition to the publication of raw data with the greatest level of granularity; • Data should, as far as possible, be made available in commonly used formats to facilitate comparisons over time and between one Member State and another. • Data should be published in an open access format, e.g. cvs (currently, some Member States choose to publish certain data, such as funding under the EU Fisheries Fund, in pdf format which makes analysis restrictive); • Data should be assembled at one central location (e.g. not at the regional level); • Information about the dataset itself, including descriptions of categories, information how to use the databank, etc., should be displayed in major EU languages (and at least in English).
21 on behalf of organisation civil society International Organization (UN) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission They should preferably store these at their National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) which are part of the IOC's International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) programme.
22 on behalf of organisation civil society NGO Ecologistas en Acción • Where legislation permits it, data should be made available without any unnecessary delays; • Data should be made available with the greatest level of detail available and not arbitrarily aggregated. Any aggregation of data should be in addition to the publication of raw data with the greatest level of granularity; • Data should, as far as possible, be made available in commonly used formats to facilitate comparisons over time and between one Member State and another. • Data should be published in an open access format, e.g. cvs (currently, some Member States choose to publish certain data, such as funding under the EU Fisheries Fund, in pdf format which makes analysis restrictive); • Data should be assembled at one central location (e.g. not at the regional level); • Information about the dataset itself, including descriptions of categories, information how to use the databank, etc., should be displayed in major EU languages (and at least in English).
23 on behalf of organisation civil society NGO mixed of public society and enterprises Int. Forum for Sustainable Underwater Activities Setting up processes for proper stewardship of data that ensures not only save archiving, but also cataloguing using standards and technology that allows fast retrieval of data through automated processes. It would be desirable that the EU stablishes those standards as soon as possible and with all parties agreement, in order to facilitate an homogeneus set of information, easily accessible with a single system. We must understand that the sea has no borders and it would not be useful and agile to have info in different formats.
24 on behalf of organisation civil society charity / think tank new economics foundation • Where legislation permits it, data should be made available without any unnecessary delays; • Data should be made available with the greatest level of detail available and not arbitrarily aggregated. Any aggregation of data should be in addition to the publication of raw data with the greatest level of granularity; • Data should, as far as possible, be made available in commonly used formats to facilitate comparisons over time and between one Member State and another. • Data should be published in an open access format, e.g. cvs (currently, some Member States choose to publish certain data, such as funding under the EU Fisheries Fund, in pdf format which makes analysis restrictive); • Data should be assembled at one central location (e.g. not at the regional level); • Information about the dataset itself, including descriptions of categories, information how to use the databank, etc., should be displayed in major EU languages (and at least in English).
25 on behalf of organisation civil society defend the marine environment Asociacion Plataforma"El Chorlitejo" • Where legislation permits it, data should be made available without any unnecessary delays; • Data should be made available with the greatest level of detail available and not arbitrarily aggregated. Any aggregation of data should be in addition to the publication of raw data with the greatest level of granularity; • Data should, as far as possible, be made available in commonly used formats to facilitate comparisons over time and between one Member State and another. • Data should be published in an open access format, e.g. cvs (currently, some Member States choose to publish certain data, such as funding under the EU Fisheries Fund, in pdf format which makes analysis restrictive); • Data should be assembled at one central location (e.g. not at the regional level); • Information about the dataset itself, including descriptions of categories, information how to use the databank, etc., should be displayed in major EU languages (and at least in English).
28 on behalf of organisation private Environmental Characterisation Keen Marine Ltd By working together. Member states need to decide among themselves what is important data to collect, manage and archive. Data management systems should be locally administered but globally coordinated and should eventually reside (or link) to a commonly accessible node. This implies the standardisation of data formats which in turn implies standardisation of data collection methodology. Safe data storage means multiple copies and procedures for regular maintenance of the data archive, coordinated between replicate data repositories.
29 on behalf of organisation private European industry association The European Wind Energy Association - EWEA Data should be readily accessible and updated at regular interval to be useful and interoperable. Common formats should be used (.csv, .txt, .xcl for data and metadata) There are a number of issues and principles that must be taken into account to approach the design of user-interfaces and requirements / restrictions to users: • The data structure of the database with the level of integration of GIS element should be defined in close dialogue with (key-) users (authorities, consultants and project holders). An agreement and commitment will be necessary to ensure that the system is used. • The system must be designed to ensure an easy user-interface. The system should not impose (significant) extra work-load (=costs) compared to present data handling. Furthermore, if it is too difficult to enter data into the system, the system will not be much used and data will be missing. Loss of data due to difficulties of entering into the platform cannot be acceptable. • It is recommended to have a person/institution responsible for the database, as well as support for users and data-entry validation. The best system would be a single well-structured and continuously updated national database held by a governmental institution. • One data submission should be suitable for multiple purposes in one Member State so that developers do not deal with two separate data submissions under two separate systems. However, the main difficulty in using data from public authorities is usually not their accessibility (delays and costs are acceptable) but their quality. Data may be limited in terms of period-time (meteo, hydrographical data), extent (bathymetry, geological), resolution or reliability (bathymetric surveys, hydro data). Common standards would help to address this.
36 on behalf of organisation private Subsea High voltage power transmission Nexans Norway common web based portal with easy downloading defined by geographical area - draw a box on a chart and receive all data in that box - needs good data indexing to work well. Metadata from contributers is important but should not be an undue burden, and preferably optional to give highest contribution from industries where knowledge or resources are lacking.
40 on behalf of organisation private coastal engineering HR Wallingford A good starting point is to focus on data collect by public bodies for the public task in the context of the INSPIRE Directive which has data interoperability (and associate data services) at its core. INSPIRE also addresses some of the data policy issues around making data “freely available”. The INSPIRE Directive provides both data specifications and network service specifications that Member States are legally required to follow to make their data available and interoperable.
41 on behalf of organisation private coastal protection Thetis s.p.a Free data availability and sharing can generate mutual benefits for EU Member States, in particular when transboundary problems need to be addressed. These benefits should be clearly highlighted at the EU level to tempt Member State in investing in it. INSPIRE Directive provides the EU reference to frame data in a way that are fully interoperable; thus effort on INSPIRE Directive implementation should be maintained and reinforced wherever needed. The use of data sharing protocols may be very effective in technically supporting data sharing. In case of spatial data, Open Geospatial Consortium standards (such as Web Map Service – WMS, Web Feature Services – WFS, and Web Coverage Services – WCS, etc.) can be used. Within the above framework a national body should be identified as responsible for the process, involving all relevant actors, including both public and private ones. National interfaces can better support communication with the EC and European Agency (such as EEA), also ensuring the language bottlenecks are overcame. A real validation process is not required. The basic idea is that data providers (within each Member State) are responsible for data quality and updating; thus sharing costs, efforts and responsibilities among the different actors of the data sharing exercise.
45 on behalf of organisation private environmental protection North Sea Foundation/Stichting De Noordzee Member States need to cooperate on a regional level to agree on sampling procedures, data collection routines, and storage mechanisms. The commission must overview this process to align these procedures among all regional approaches to make data interoperable among the regions. All data should be stored in an easily accessible file format allowing for the extraction of data from all regional approaches without impediments to enable an easy cross-evaluation. If it is not possible beforehand either for the Commission to supervise the different regional approaches or for the Member States in the regions to agree on the necessary measures, a centralised approach such as the current Data Collection Framework (DCF) for fisheries data should be developed. Any storage of data, access procedures and guidelines necessary for the use of the data need to be documented in clear language in several, if not all European languages.
51 on behalf of organisation private legal consultancy, maritime law, R&D Corporacion Maritima LL Supplying adeauqte ICT repository and network, with security protocols Maybe a Certification and authentication process Some examples : SSNet abd the ongoing CISE Common Information Sharimng Environment and ESW -Electronic Single Window systems
55 on behalf of organisation private oil and gas Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) No opinion.
56 on behalf of organisation private public-private ADIS GROUP No opinion
58 on behalf of organisation private renewable energy Mainstream Renewable Power The UK’s MEDIN network of data archiving centres are a good example of how national level efforts can feed into a pan European framework. The INSPIRE Directive provides both data specifications and network service specifications that Member States are legally required to follow to make their data available and interoperable. The ISIS consortium supports the work of MEDIN and INSPIRE.
61 on behalf of organisation private ship and freight agents The slovenian shipaand freight agents associatio We must to store all data s so in same manner they have do do same, there are regulations in Memebrs States.
64 on behalf of organisation private software and electronics development PCM2U Ltd It is a question of Encryption and working at a high level that would see an investment in time and manpower far greater than the worth of the data to succeed in its interpretation
65 on behalf of organisation private surveying and mapping Comité de Liaison des Géomètres Européens (CLGE) The member states can best form an organization responsible for collecting and storing the data so that information and knowledge from different sectors can be combined. Data should be stored at the most appropriate level of public authority to ensure their quality and update. Users could then consult the data after registration with a login code for instance. But this option will depend on the data policy of each public authority or data provider. But in any case the quality and the update of data must be checked. An interface and formats of data exchanges are necessary to ensure their interoperability. Besides, making data available requires partnerships with industry.
66 on behalf of organisation private surveying and mapping Ordre des géomètres-experts The quality and the update of data must be checked. An interface and formats of data exchanges are necessary to ensure their interoperability. France can rely on public institutions such as IGN (the national geographical institute), BRGM (the French organization of reference for earth science), SHOM (the hydrographic and oceanographic service for navy) which can stock data with a high level of security. Besides, institutions such as the “Ordre des géomètres experts” have developed portals which can stock data in safety which are accessible for free, coherent and interoperable. http://www.geofoncier.fr/
73 on behalf of organisation public European Eurogeosurveys, Brussels Data should be stored on a national basis by, or linked to, designated "national data centres" of relevant specialists (such as MAREANO geology data in NGU, Norway or similar in other Geological Survey Organizations) acting as open access data repositories. By supporting these to provide longterm safe storage (meeting INSPIRE), the data should be interopable to agreed levels, updated and available to feed into national, European or wider international initiatives. Example: The Geological Survey of the Netherlands is preparing for a new law that will govern management and utilization of subsurface information. Under this law, a key register for the subsurface will be established: a single national database for the subsurface data and information, which will have to be both fed and consulted by all Dutch government bodies dealing with the subsurface. Both land and marine subsurface information will be covered.
76 on behalf of organisation public European SOCIB - Balearic Islands Observ Forecast System Establish, approve and implement sound state of the art procedures Coordination with EC
70 on behalf of organisation public European European Marine Board European initiatives (e.g. SeaDataNet and SeaDataNet II) have provided a commonplatform for national and regional data centres to establish international agreements on best practice for data storage, common standards and metadata architecture (aligning with the Inspire directive). Member States should build on these efforts, developing more mechanisms at anational level to ensure that data are safely stored, made publicly available andcan be delivered to European and international networks including EMODNET, GMES (MyOcean) and GEO. Potential ways forward include implementing a credit system for datasets and creating penalties if data are not delivered to a National Data Centre. Member States could also consider establishing a national platform (e.g. expert panel) or other mechanisms to ensure certification and quality control at the Member State level. Regional systems such as EuroGOOS could also play a role in developing data assembly centres and interconnections with national facilities.Such efforts will require sufficient funding at Member State and European level to ensure quality control. In addition, governments/ authorities should ensure implementation and long-term viability and sustainability by moving from finite short-term contracts towards a sustained, longer-term funding model for monitoring and collecting data. Knowledge exchange at a Member State, European and international level is also vital to ensure marine data management takes into account the continuous progress inInformation Communication Technology (ICT) which is set to revolutionize marine data management in the coming decades.International best practice developed by partnerships such as the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) should also be taken into account to promote international interoperability.
74 on behalf of organisation public European The European Straits Initiative The European Straits Initiative is of the view that responsible authority/agency continue to upholdand update relevant data, but agree (by contract signing) to apply to content and demands of INSPIRE directive.
77 on behalf of organisation public global International Hydrographic Organization At any moment, particularly in the case of a shipping incident, HOs must be in a position to provide governments with evidence that they have conducted surveys or processed nautical information in a legally defensible and reasonable manner. Therefore HOs have a long experience of ensuring that the data from which nautical charts are derived are collected, processed, stored and remain accessible in the long term, based on IHO standards and recommendations. A number of HOs have undertaken to be ISO-9001 certified and the IHO recommends that a certified quality management system be in place for the production and maintenance of Electronic Navigational Charts. The IHO considers that the designation of national thematic focal points is a good practice and recommends that HOs be responsible for bathymetric data at the national level. Depending on national circumstances, this responsibility can include other related themes such as sea-level observations, maritime safety information and maritime limits and boundaries. The IHO maintains a world-wide level of coordination for oceanic bathymetry through the IHO Data Center for Digital Bathymetry and its co-sponsorship and management, with UNESCO-IOC, of the GEBCO programme. The use of IHO-standards for hydrographic data by Member States ensures data interoperability. This requirement is well reflected in the new series of standards which are being developed under the overarching standard S-100 “IHO Universal Hydrographic Data Model”.
104 on behalf of organisation public national Italian Hydrographic Office All the bathymetric data provided by the Italian HO, are represented on Nautical Charts (Paper and Electronic) and have been verified after a quality control process. The data storage is IHO structure standardization compliant ensuring data interoperability between all IHO member.
90 on behalf of organisation public national SHOM At any moment, particularly in the case of a shipping incident, HOs must be in a position to provide governments with evidence that they have conducted surveys or processed nautical information in a legally defensible and reasonable manner. Therefore HOs have a long experience of ensuring that the data from which nautical charts are derived are collected, processed, stored and remain accessible in the long term, based on IHO standards and recommendations. A number of HOs have undertaken to be ISO-9001 certified and the IHO recommends that a certified quality management system be in place for the production and maintenance of Electronic Navigational Charts. The IHO considers that the designation of national thematic focal points is a good practice and recommends that HOs be responsible for bathymetric data at the national level. The IHO maintains a world-wide level of coordination for oceanic bathymetry through the IHO Data Center for Digital Bathymetry and its co-sponsorship and management, with UNESCO-IOC, of the GEBCO programme. In France, the Blue book “National strategy for the sea and oceans” recommends to establish inside national agencies a net of national coordinator for each sort of marine data. SHOM has been acknowledged as national coordinators for sea-level in-situ measurements, maritime safety information (and maritime limits and boundaries ). The use of IHO-standards for hydrographic data by Member States ensures data interoperability. This requirement is well reflected in the new series of standards which are being developed under the overarching standard S-100 “IHO Universal Hydrographic Data Model”.
88 on behalf of organisation public national Ifremer At the national level, main data providers should comply with INSPIRE protocols which guarantee data interoperability based on geographical information (ISO 19115, Open Geospatial Consortium). To ensure data storage at the level of each National Oceanographic Data Centre (NODC), two systems are already in place: - The DOI (Digital Object Identifier) system which allows the registration of datasets and use of persistent interoperable identifiers for use on digital networks. - The CDI (Common Data Index) developed by SEADATANET which give users a highly detailed insight in the availability and geographical spreading of marine data across the different data centres and institutes across Europe. On a pan-European level, all NODCs are operating and interacting in close cooperation through short-term EU money (SEADATANET 1&2). NODCs are the key players to ensure long term storage, availability and interoperability of data at the pan-European and national levels. They should remain closely coordinated at the pan European level (which imply to sustain the coordination initiated by SEADATANET on a long term perspective) and they should set-up and/or consolidate strong networking activities nationally with their partners as well as with GMES Marine Core Service which is an important user of historical observations (physical and biogeochemical parameters). Secure the long-term funding to conduct this dual activity at different levels should be a priority for Europe. EMODNET prosperity and efficiency will greatly depend on this aspect.
132 on behalf of organisation public national Swedish Maritime Adm - Hydrographic Office Bathymetric data must be managed in a structured database solution, quality assured, maintained and updated and following the guidelines published by the International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO). Hydrographic Offices within the EU in association with the existing regional hydrographic commissions assure managing bathymetric data safely stored, available and interoperable.
103 on behalf of organisation public national OGS Data can be safely stored, made available and interoperable through the national systems, organized as a distributed network with national thematic centers already connected to the existing European infrastructures. SeaDataNet and SeaDataNet2 have demonstrated the potential of a pan-European distributed network of data repositories system complemented by basic access services based on National systems. Further development in removing existing obstacles in on-line data access has to be pursued at national and EC level. The multidisciplinary nature of the marine data require National marine data committees for a proper standardization and certification of different thematic infrastructures.
123 on behalf of organisation public national Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment Data should be coherent with INSPIRE principles, as well as with other relevant regulations. Ideally, there should be units in charge of thematic datasets as well as a coordinating unit to streamline data storage and flows.
112 on behalf of organisation public national Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, Norway Data should be stored in Public agencies/offices, and metadata should be established. To make them interoperable, data should be established in a format common within and across nations.
83 on behalf of organisation public national Department of Antiquities, Cyprus Data storage at the Department of Antiquities is safe and secure. The more recent data are stored both in electronic and paper form. Back-ups of electronic data are conducted on a regular basis. The premises are protected by an alarm system and there are guards at the premises at all times. The state archiving system is extremely efficient and data are easily available.
93 on behalf of organisation public national koord. Stellungnahme Deutsche Bundesregierung Die Infrastrukur für die Bereitstellung der Daten sollte möglichst dezentral aufgebaut sein, die Daten verbleiben bei den Originatoren und werden, sofern es sich um nicht geschützte Daten handelt, über das Internet mit Hilfe von Diensten zu Verfügung gestellt. Aus Performance-Gründen und zur Speicherung von aggregierten Daten wird es notwendig sein, das dezentrale System durch zentrale Komponenten zu unterstützen. Daraus ergibt sich für die in der Frage genannten Punkte: • Sichere Speicherung der Daten: Da die Originaldaten bei den Originatoren verbleiben sollen, müssen diese sich auch um die sichere Speicherung der Daten kümmern. Diese Aufgabe wird auch jetzt schon zuverlässig von den Originatoren wahrgenommen. Für den Betrieb der zentralen Komponenten wird es eine verantwortliche Stelle auf nationaler Ebene geben müssen, die unter anderem für die sichere Speicherung der dort aggregierten Daten verantwortlich ist. Für die Durchführung der sicheren Speicherung gibt es unterschiedliche denkbare technische Lösungen, auf die hier nicht eingegangen werden soll. • Verfügbarkeit der Daten: Daten, soweit sie einen entsprechenden Geobezug haben, sollten von den Originatoren über sogenannte Dienste (Kartendienste, Download-Dienste) entsprechend den INSPIRE-Anforderungen im Internet zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Damit stünden die Daten, die keinem besonderen Schutz unterliegen, für jedermann zur Verfügung. Bei Bedarf könnte der Zugriff auf die Daten über ein Authentifizierungssystem gesteuert werden. Die Recherchierbarkeit der Daten und Dienste muss über Metadaten sichergestellt werden. Um eine technische Verfügbarkeit sicherzustellen, sollten die INSPIRE-Anforderungen für Dienste zur Anwendung kommen. Gleichzeitig wird es erforderlich sein, die INSPIRE-Richtlinie um marine Aspekte zu erweitern. • Interoperabilität der Daten: Die beste Interoperabilität der Daten wird erreicht, wenn alle Daten harmonisiert sind und in einem standardisierten Datenmodell zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Dies sollte langfristig das Ziel sein, um die Daten bestmöglich nutzen zu können. Auf dem Weg zu diesem optimalen Zustand gibt es mehrere Zwischenstufen. Der kleinste gemeinsame Nenner ist die Einhaltung der vorhandenen technischen Standards von OGC, ISO und INSPIRE. Die größten Probleme werden bei der inhaltlichen Harmonisierung der verschiedenen Datenbestände gesehen. In Deutschland wird ein solches System im Rahmen des Projektes “Marine Dateninfrastruktur – Deutschland (MDI-DE)" aufgebaut. Die dort gemachten Erfahrungen könnten als wichtige Grundlage für den Aufbau eines europäischen Systems dienen. Ein wichtiger Schritt für die inhaltliche Entwicklung von Schnittstellen, in denen die Daten transferiert werden, ist die Definition und Standardisierung von Kernkomponenten (vgl. z. B. die Arbeiten der UNCEFACT auf dem Gebiet der Geschäftsprozessstandardisierung). Eine solche Schnittstellenentwicklung wird insbesondere bei einer möglichen Nutzung von EMODNET im Rahmen der Berichtsprozesse zur MSRL wichtig. Als schützenswert identifizierte Daten werden als Verschlussache eingestuft und werden hier nicht näher betrachtet. Speicherung, Zugang, Umgang und Datenaustausch erfolgen nach den einschlägigen Geheimschutzrichtlinien.
242 on behalf of organisation public national Autorités françaises En préalable, les Autorités françaises estiment nécessaire que : - les données soient recueillies dans un cadre conceptuel cohérent avec l’état des connaissances scientifiques, en s’adossant à des centres reconnus de recherche et d’expertise ; - toute mise à disposition de données repose sur un processus de validation rigoureuse assurant la traçabilité des données, et soit accompagnée d'un corpus de métadonnées décrivant la source, les conditions d'acquisition et éventuellement les précautions d'usage des données. Les Autorités françaises sont favorables à toute initiative visant à faciliter l'inter-opérabilité des données. Il est donc nécessaire de définir un cadre et un format commun d'échange et de diffusion des données. Un travail important a été effectué à ce titre dans le cadre de la directive INSPIRE et des règlements associés, adoptés ou en cours de discussion. Pour les Autorités françaises, il est primordial que les formats utilisés dans le cadre de portails européens (par exemple EMODnet) soient cohérents avec les choix effectués dans le cadre défini par INSPIRE. Pour les catégories de données qui ne seraient pas explicitement déjà visées par la directive INSPIRE, il nous semble important de s'inspirer de la démarche mise en œuvre dans ses groupes thématiques pour définir les formats de données. En termes d'architecture générale de portails de données (par ex. EMODnet), les Autorités françaises défendent la vision d'un service gérant les données de manière décentralisée, les données restant hébergées sur les serveurs des organismes qui les collectent et les mettent à disposition via des portails dédiés. Ainsi, ce sont les modalités (protocoles) utilisées ou mises en œuvre par les gestionnaires de ce portail qui garantissent la fiabilité du stockage ainsi que l’interopérabilité des données avant leur mise en ligne ; elles garantissent également aux propriétaires des données leur visibilité et le suivi des données fournies aux utilisateurs. Les Autorités françaises souhaitent illustrer ces méthodes de gestion et de mise à disposition des données par l'intermédiaire des exemples de bases de données développées dans le cadre des activités du Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement durable et de l’Energie et de ses organismes : La Direction de l’Eau et de la Biodiversité de ce ministère a, pour ses besoins, développé un certain nombre de systèmes d’information et bases de données. La construction de ces systèmes, notamment le Système d’Information sur la nature et les Paysages (http://www.naturefrance.fr/sinp) ou le Système d’information sur l’eau (http://www.eaufrance.fr/?rubrique219&id_article=833), repose sur le principe de la gestion décentralisée des données, dans des bases de données gérées par les producteurs de données, et sur le principe de l’interopérabilité des bases de données. L’exemple de la base de données Quadrige², gérée par l’Ifremer, qui bancarise les données sur l’environnement littoral au titre de la Directive Cadre sur l’Eau montre l’importance du processus de validation des données, afin de pouvoir disposer de données fiables pour la réalisation des évaluations. En matière de traçabilité et de contrôle de la qualité des données, la plupart des services hydrographiques nationaux, dont le SHOM, ont entrepris d’être certifiés ISO-9001. Cette certification apporte une garantie supplémentaire à la traçabilité des procédures de gestion des données. Les données hydrographiques sont gérées en conformité avec les normes de l’Organisation Hydrographique Internationale, ce qui garantit leur interopérabilité. En matière de sécurité Toute base de données ou application de système d’information français fait l’objet d’une politique nationale de sécurité des systèmes d’information. Cette politique de sécurité s'appuie sur la méthode EBIOS d’analyse préalable des besoins de sécurité sur les critères de disponibilité, d’intégrité des données, de confidentialité et de preuve. Les systèmes mis en place doivent répondre aux exigences techniques et fonctionnelles conformément à l’analyse EBIOS (DICP). Par ailleurs, des plans de continuité et de reprise d’activité (PCA/PRA) sont mis en place pour assurer la continuité des systèmes nationaux. Le bureau de la politique des systèmes d’information (SG/SPSSI/SPI4) du Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement durable et de l’Energie, et la Mission Sécurité des Systèmes d’Information du Ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Agroalimentaire et de la Forêt ont pour mission de veiller à la bonne application de la politique générale de sécurité dans les ministères, en lien avec le Référentiel Général de Sécurité du gouvernement. Le Fonctionnaire de Sécurité des Systèmes d’Information, placé auprès du Haut Fonctionnaire de Défense assure également ces fonctions au niveau politique. S'agissant de données de pêche, tout système mis en place par des professionnels ou des opérateurs dans le cadre de la réglementation européenne ou nationale fait l’objet d’un processus d’homologation mis en place par la direction des pêches maritimes et de l’aquaculture du Ministère du Développement Durable, pour assurer la conformité des systèmes opérateurs aux exigences, notamment en termes de sécurité. La chef de la mission des systèmes d’information, de la pêche et de l’aquaculture est nommée Responsable Sécurité des Systèmes d’Information pour la direction des pêches maritimes et de l’aquaculture. En ce qui concerne la sécurité du stockage des données, l’utilisation de technologies nouvelles de type « cloud » nous semble devoir être envisagée avec prudence à ce stade, dans l’attente de la disponibilité des technologies fiabilisées.
100 on behalf of organisation public national Gruppo Nazionale di Oceanografia Operativa Ensure hierarchical networking between Institutes, National and european databases Use concepts of database federation Connect seamlessly real time and delayed mode databases
135 on behalf of organisation public national General Lighthouse Authorities Follow guidelines provided by Marine Data Networks
130 on behalf of organisation public national Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institut For availability it is necessary to closely follow the technical development which at present suggests web services for systems to communicate. Thus, copies of data repositories can be avoided and the most recent update of master data will be communicated to all users. For an interoperability it is necessary with standardized vocabularies and metadata descriptions.
97 on behalf of organisation public national Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service (HNHS) HNHS conducts hydrographic and oceanographic surveys, compiles and updates its products according to IHO standards and guidelines that ensure the quality of the provided data, products and services. In an advanced technological society, certification concerning quality of work is essential.
86 on behalf of organisation public national Hydrographic Office, Finnish Transport Agency Hydrographic proceses should be quality monitored, preferably quality audited and based on well established procedures and international existing standards and recommendations (developed by International Hydrogrpahic Organisation). Regional coordination via Regional Hydrographic Commissions.
131 on behalf of organisation public national Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management In Sweden national data hosts are responsible for hosting, controlling and make data available. However, data delivered to national data hosts are mainly from national monitoring programmes, while regional monitoring data can be reported voluntarily. Reporting data to national hosts should be further improved thorugh a certification procedure and cover all possible monitoring data. Data hosts must take proper care to the Inspire directive in order to be compatible with other data hosts service.
115 on behalf of organisation public national PL Ministry of Transport & Maritime Economy Istotne znaczenie w tym wzgledzie ma stosowanie odpowiednich i zunifikowanych procedur dotyczacych ochrony danych i wykorzystywanie jednolitych formatów wymiany danych
106 on behalf of organisation public national Ministry of Transport of the Republic of Latvia Latvia believes that, under the INSPIRE Directive, the data accessibility and interoperability can be ensured.
107 on behalf of organisation public national Government of Malta Malta feels that it might be opportune to have one system for interoperability especially for data features in reporting obligations. At a national level, there is scope to ensure interoperability when designing and refining environmental monitoring programmes both in terms of scope and methods use, whenever possible.
98 on behalf of organisation public national DCENR, Geological Survey of Ireland Member States can ensure that the data they hold are safely stored, available and interoperable by assigning responsibility for the coordination and management of marine data and associated standards to a National Marine Data Centre, managed by the most competent public organisation or agency, adequately and sustainably funded and complient with international standards In some instances critical data could be held in duplicate by the Data Centre to assist with data security, longevity and accessibility, while overall data management responsibility would remain with the data owner. Member State and European marine research projects should be funded subject to the inclusion of appropriate levels of data management, budget allocations and plans, including clear instructions on post project data and reporting plans. Considerable data losses occur due to lack of consideration to this issue. Furthermore there needs to be a contractual data management commitment attached to funding of any programmes generating relevant data to ensure the continued hosting, availability, and interoperability of the data to agreed levels, whether the data hosting is central or distributed. Existing networks such as EuroGOOS could play a key role in developing data assembly centres and interconnections at the regional or sea-basin level. Certification: Further standardisation of data procedures and formats are required at European level before a certification system could feasibly be developed. Certification is best developed at an EU /International level to facilitate interoperability and sharing of data. The Irish INFOMAR Programme represents a good working example of an open access data repository.
110 on behalf of organisation public national TNO - Geological Survey of the Netherlands The Geological Survey of the Netherlands is preparing for a new law that will govern management and utilization of subsurface information. Under this law, a key register for the subsurface will be established: a single national database for the subsurface data and information, which will have to be both fed and consulted by all Dutch government bodies dealing with the subsurface. Both land and marine subsurface information will be covered.
134 on behalf of organisation public national Government of United Kingdom The Marine Knowledge 2020 initiative is broadly in line with the UK Government’s efforts to improve access to, and co-ordination of, data, for example through the UK Location Strategy. The premise of the paper - interoperable data and 'gather once, use many' – also aligns perfectly with the focus of SOLAS V,9 and the UK Civil Hydrography Programme. This approach is considered to be increasingly important as the demand for good quality evidence on complex marine environmental systems continues to grow and budgets for science come under increasing pressure. For marine data the UK Government has already supported the development of the Marine Environmental Data and Information Network (MEDIN) to improve access to, use and interoperability of marine data and information. National data management frameworks (such as MEDIN) can help the adoption of common standards, and provide secure data management facilities. They also provide a useful national point of contact to European initiatives or nodes in a distributed data system. For pan-European data exchange there is a need for common standards and metadata architecture so that data are interoperable and can be freely exchanged across borders as is being done through the implementation of INSPIRE.
117 on behalf of organisation public national Instituto Hidrográfico (IHPT) The National Hydrographic Offices follow IHO (International Hydrographic Organization) standards and procedures for the collection, processing and archiving of the data. Nowadays, information is stored in proper databases and integrated through Spatial Data Infrastructures for near real time data access, interoperability and mining. In complement IHPT has in place a Quality Management System for the hydrographic surveys, production and updating of nautical cartography (Nautical Charts and Electronic Navigational Charts). IHPT is also contributing to the EMODnet initiative.
119 on behalf of organisation public national Senate of Romanian Parliament The Senate considers that the means by which Member States can ensure that the data they hold are safely stored, available, and interoperable are the following: a) continue and complete implementation of the communication COM (2010) 584 final - "Roadmap towards establishing the Common Information Sharing Environment for the surveillance of the EU maritime domain (CISE)". Thus, through a common platform (application) it will be possible to gain access to data used by the user communities at European level, on the principle "need to know & level of access"; b) implementation of control standards of raw data quality and of acquisition procedures thereof; c) standardization of formats of raw and final data (eg adoption of technology and SeaDataNet norms), as well as of data processing procedures.
109 on behalf of organisation public national Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment The concept of national data centres which are interconnected at a European level using agreed European or international standards for the exchange of archived data has proved to be efficient. For near real time oceanographic data, EuroGOOS has developed the concept of regional data assembly centres and portals that interconnect national facilities for data exchange. In the end, peer review, i.e. social control by the users of data, is the guarantee for accessibility of the promised data. Further the Dutch Archive Act ensures raw, processed and meta data is stored.
84 on behalf of organisation public national National Survey and Cadastre The implementation of INSPIRE-compliant Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure (MSDI) ensures the standardised distribution and sharing of data among users. MSDI's governance elements ensure their interoperability, updating frequency and consistent availability.
94 on behalf of organisation public national VLA, Associaton of German state Archaeologists They should be stored in state databases
113 on behalf of organisation public national Norwegian Hydrographic Service Through a national spatial data infrastructure with well defined functions and responsibilities, based on international standards. In Norway we have establisded the national SDI, called Norway Digital, including more that 600 partnes on national, regional and local level. The partners are providing standarized data and map services covering major and important public sector information. The marine component of this National SDI is getting increased attention and becoming more important both for the public and private sector. The newly developed standard for maritime information (S-100) ensures conformance with the international standard for geographic information (ISO-19100). In this way S-100 will make hydrographic data available for a large number of user areas. Examples: Through the ongoing national programme Mareano (www.mareano.no) bathymetric, geological, biological and polution parameters are collected. This integrated approach facilitates easy and efficient access to data. The Mareano progarmme is a vital part of the knowledge input to the governmaental managment plans the Barents, Norwegian and the North Sea. Another example is the monitoring and information system Barentswatch (www.barentswatch.no). The system will make relevant information and services related to sea and coastal areas more accessible to the authorities, decision makers and users in general. Barentswatch currently includes 27 partners representing martitime agencies and research institutes.
124 on behalf of organisation public national PLataforma Oceánica de Canarias (PLOCAN) Using standard formats and services and following the INSPIRE directive.
85 on behalf of organisation public national Prime Minister's Office, Finland a) SAFELY STORED. By applying and constantly updating safety measures that prevent malicious elements from contaminating or destroying the database or data distribution channels. If available, the EU could apply common standards for the level of safety required by MS data holders, but if not available then the development of such standards should be considered. b) AVAILABILITY: By creating (or addressing) national data centers (agencies, research institutes, governmental offices) responsible for different types of thematic data, e.g. hydrographic offices, nature or environment agencies/research centres, geologic surveys, nature conservation agencies, etc. These thematic data centres should form an EU wide network of centres that interoperate nationally within their own theme, across themes, as well as across the EU. When applicable, the Regional Sea Commissions should be considered to be playing a key role here. c) INTEROPERABILITY. National clearing houses could be considered in order to facilitate, standardize and harmonize the data and/or products provided to EMODnet. In addition, all data collected within the publicly-funded projects shall be accompanied by contextual information or documentation (metadata) to provide a secondary user with any necessary detail on the origin or manipulation of the data in order to prevent any misuse, misinterpretation or confusion. The use of IHO-standards for hydrographic data by Member States would ensure interoperability. This requirement is well reflected in the new series of standards which are being developed under the overarching standard S-100 “IHO Universal Hydrographic Data Model”. d) GENERAL ISSUE. Unless a majority of the MS’ national data centres support the goals set out in the Green Paper none of the issues stated in this question can be achieved. The Marine Knowledge process is still impeded by some inertia (unwillingness) of some MS data holders to join in. This inertia can be reduced by further proof of the added value the EU (the Commission, EEA, JRC, ESA, etc.) can provide to all MS in addition to the work done by the RSCs. Another way by which this inertia can be reduced is by applying more incentives.
99 on behalf of organisation public national Conisma, University of Rome, Magic Project see letter attached and text in the last point
147 on behalf of organisation public regional OBSERVATORIO AMBIENTAL GRANADILLA By establishing official data repositories (Member States or with a regional scope, supported by the EU). Then, data produced with public money (direct contracts, co-financed projects, subventions, etc.) should be placed in these repositories, and only when they receive the register/ certificate of having done so, is the payment for the project or subvention cleared. These repositories could be responsible for standardizing the data and, eventually, quality control. We therefore believe that it is better to first concentrate data after collection, shape them in accordance to maximize potential use, and then distribute or facilitate digital access to the marine data by any potential user (including evaluating and reporting agencies, etc.).Technology allows merging and integrating marine data in a common data-logicielle, facilitating the multiple and combined use of different types of data (much better than separated datasets). Merging Distributing ? Data producers ----------------> Data maintenance & integration ---------------------> ? Data analysis/ evaluation
155 on behalf of organisation public regional Marine South East By requiring all publicaly-funded data to be stored to defined metadata standards.
144 on behalf of organisation public regional Azores Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs Data to share should be managed at Member State Level. National "sister" systems should be developed in parallel with a European central system, to assure compatibility.
145 on behalf of organisation public regional Consejería Agr. Pesca y Medio Ambiente Andalucía Debe existir una infraestructura de datos formados por nodos de proveedores de información garantizados por las administraciones centrales y regionales, quienes han de ser responsables de la calidad y la actualización de la información y deben garantizar que su distribución y puesta en explotación sea técnicamente posible. Además, estos centros nacionales y regionales responsables deben respetar y garantizar el cumplimiento de los principios establecidos por las leyes nacionales y las directivas europeas, en especial INSPIRE. Un claro ejemplo de buena práctica en este sentido lo constituye la Red de información Ambiental (REDIAM) en la región de Andalucía (España). Esta red ha implantado un modelo de gestión y divulgación de información ambiental, tanto relativa al litoral y el medio marino como a otras temáticas ambientales (biodiversidad, clima, geodiversidad, agua y humedales…), que se basa en la integración de información en un repositorio común estructurado siguiendo los principios emanados de INSPIRE, el metadatado y control estricto de la información, y su explotación y divulgación mediante servicios OGC y la atención a peticiones directas de los ciudadanos (para más información ver http://www.cma.junta-andalucia.es/medioambiente/site/web/rediam/).
136 on behalf of organisation public regional Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) Establish ‘platforms’, ‘board of editors’ or other mechanisms for certification and quality control. The importance of an established data centre together with its role is highlighted. This requires the input of specific experts. Continue the process of establishing agreed standards for (specific/priority) datasets. Encourage the use and archive of datasets. Establishing a legal framework for the collection of these ‘crucial’ or priority datasets. Assuring data are collected in consistent manner and according to quality standards, allowing for data-integration at regional scale (regional sea) requires setting up national strategies that need to be safeguarded from other interests. Legal embedding is one instrument to achieve this.
139 on behalf of organisation public regional Ministry of Economic Affairs Schleswig-Holstein For the storage of these relevant data there are a existing institutions in Germany, such as the BSH and the Ocean Research institutions such as GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel. Furthermore, reference is made to the existing Manida Portal and MDI-DE initiative.
153 on behalf of organisation public regional Countryside Council for Wales It would make sense for each Member State to have its own arrangements for storing data and making it available which are based on common standards and formats (such as INSPIRE). For example, the green paper makes reference to MEDIN (www.oceannet.org), the national system for the UK. All organisations that collect data have a responsibility to implement best practice with regards to data management, storage and dissemination, by taking account of these recognised standards and formats. At a national level there should be a body, such as a partnership organisation, promoting and encouraging the use of standards and underpinning the setting up of a network of Data Archive Centres that can provide this service. CCW is content with the MEDIN model referred but perhaps there needs to be more International and National pressure for organisations within member states to participate in this kind of partnership. At the moment it is really ‘join if you want to’ rather than being recommended or part of an organisations’ remit. These national initiatives would then feed into wider pan-European initiatives. This must be a two way process, with any pan-European initiatives engaging fully with these national initiatives to ensure inter-operability. Generally the issue is not data held by public bodies but data collected by (some) Academic or Commercial sectors, where there seems to be less incentive for adherence to specified standards, or commercial interests result in an unwillingness to share data in the first place. Part of the problem is that different datasets are collected for different purposes and specific projects, so there is often a lack of common standards for collection and interoperability across industry.
154 on behalf of organisation public regional Marine Scotland, Scottish Government Marine Scotland supports initiatives to improve access to and co-ordination of data. We are taking this forward through the Scottish Spatial Data Infrastructure and MEDIN. Data storage, availability and inter-operability are considered to be increasingly important as the demand for good quality evidence on complex marine environmental systems continues to grow and budgets for science come under increasing pressure. Marine Scotland already supports the Marine Environmental Data and Information Network (MEDIN) set up to achieve such aims.
137 on behalf of organisation public regional MAREMED Partnership; ww.maremed.eu Member States are under a strategic duty that consists, in terms of policy making, in putting in place the necessary tools, training programs and conditions for their data storage. In France, various organisms among them IGN, IFREMER, SHOM, CNRS and many others store the maritime data. In Italy a interesting initiative can be found in the REPERTORIO NAZIONALE DEI DATI TERRITORIALI (www.rndt.gov.it), the catalogue at national level of the metadata and the services of all the territorial datasets produced by each level of the public administration. Moreover the three terms “safety, availability and interoperability” should be conceived as only one and interoperability among the different member states and at world level if it could be possible, would be a key of efficiency. However, states are not the only data producers; local governments also produce a lot of data in order to manage their policies and their territories. It is thus necessary to establish the conditions of synergistic production, interoperability, distribution and storage of geospatial data. EMODNET may not only be a reservoir of data, but can be too, a platform of data if they are interoperable; The data must be stored by its producers, which are the first ones interested in their safety and upgrade and made available by their interoperability. It seems to be a core of the worldwide success of INTERNET and a good way to ensure a real availability of updated marine information.
151 on behalf of organisation public regional Region Västra Götaland, Sweden Public availability will increase use of data and thus improve marine knowledge. Storage etc should be dealt with within the context of the Inspire directive.
239 on behalf of organisation public regional English Heritage Such matters should be addressed directly with the respective national systems which provide the foundation for co-ordinated data access, in accordance with EU requirements (i.e. INSPIRE Directive), such as MEDIN in the UK
156 on behalf of organisation public sea basin ICES Member states should continue to use existing mechanisms and infrastructure, including world data centres, regional data centres such as ICES, national data centres and thematic data centres. New initiatives should be explored with a view to build on, rather than dismantle, existing infrastructure. Data made interoperable or available through project driven initiatives should be viewed as a short term fix that will not ensure availability, interoperability and a safe storage location. EU directives, such as INSPIRE, will go some way to ensure interoperability and availability, however the landscape is complex and there will be much data not in the scope of such directives so it should not be viewed as the entire solution, only a partial answer.
162 on behalf of organisation public sea basin OSPAR Commission The Green Paper (5.1) reflects on the national efforts for stewardship of data, but not the equivalent efforts that are required at the Regional Scale to ensure that these assets can also be accessed. OSPAR is currently undertaking a process to review management arrangements in place for its data streams to ensure they are safely stored, available and interoperable. This work is a preparatory step to the development of an OSPAR Information System.
157 on behalf of organisation public sea basin GTK - Geological Survey of Finland Through a system where data is held in national data archives or centers, bathymetry data in national hydrographical offices, geological data in the geological surveys etc. This would be the most sustainable way of data storage and availability. Interoperability has to be guaranteed through standardized methods and use of open and free access INSPIRE compatible data formats.
176 on behalf of organisation research academic (university) IMARES Having quality criteria, documentation of data in terms of metadata according to international standards, standardized exchange formats like NetCDF. Processes for quality checks.
165 on behalf of organisation research academic (university) MARE: Marine Research group University of Liege Legal obligations when providing public funds, keeping part of funds until data have been proven to have been archived in a national data center
180 on behalf of organisation research academic (university) Institute of Marine Research Make datasets citable. Make use of datacentres. Make data management plans mandatory for research projects.
194 on behalf of organisation research private research SeaDataNet Research Infrastructure (DG-R FP7) At the national level, main data providers should comply with INSPIRE protocols which guarantee data interoperability based on geographical information (ISO 19115, Open Geospatial Consortium). To ensure data storage at the level of each centralised or distributed National Oceanographic data Centre (NODC), two systems are already in place: - the CDI (Common Data Index) developed by SEADATANET - the DOI for use on digital networks On a pan-European level, all NODCs operating and interacting in close cooperation through short-term EU money (SEADATANET 1 and 2). NODCs are the key players to ensure long term storage, availability and interoperability of data at the pan-European and national levels. They should remain closely coordinated at the pan European level (which implies to sustain the coordination initiated by SEADATANET on a long term perspective) and should set-up and/or consolidate strong networking activities nationally with their partners. Secured long term funding to conduct this dual activity at different levels should be a priority for Europe. EMODNET prosperity and efficiency will greatly depend on this aspect.
196 on behalf of organisation research private research Vitrociset SpA - R&D Corporate R&D Center In this contest, the European Commission must define: 1. procedures and rules to storage the data; 2. standards to simplify the data interoperability and analysis.
201 on behalf of organisation research private research AZTI-Tecnalia (Marine Research Division) Probably, the best way is in a harmonized and standardized way, using some common datasets or exhange networks (WISE, EMODNET, etc.)
207 on behalf of organisation research public research Finnish Meteorological Institute By making sure that both original data providers and national data centers will have sufficient resources for these activities in the future.
212 on behalf of organisation research public research Thünen-Institute of Sea Fisheries Data should be hosted by a federal authorityto ensure long-term safety, access and interoperabilitiy.
208 on behalf of organisation research public research BRGM Marine Geology Data should be stored within organizations (surveys, institutes,…) with clear mandate from their authorities and / or at least confirmed long-term expertise of data management and storage, and that can ensure continuous material and human resources. Risk, at a national basis, is to leave data sets within “data banks” that are not sustained. They are many of them and many example of data set losses.
214 on behalf of organisation research public research HCMR/Institute of Oceanography-HNODC In several EU Members States there are mechanisms in place (such as IODE/NODCs) which ensure the efficient management of marine and ocean data and information in terms of collecting, quality controlling, archiving and dissemination of data and products. However, not all of the national data collected by public or private authorities are accessible through that mechanisms neither they are managed in a seamless way making thus difficult to compile them and integrated them under a common system. Through the participation of the Members States in activities such as SeaDataNet Project and EMODnet pilots, significant progress towards data and metadata compilation, homogenization and standardization was achieved. Under a common strategy and approach partners improve their national capacity, link their distributed data recourses and make them interoperable under a Pan-European data system based on common standards, best practices and procedures. Additional efforts in terms of national funding as well as further improvement of the current EU data management infrastructures is needed.
111 on behalf of organisation research public research Deltares, Postbox 177, 2600 MH Delft It is useful to identify issues and recommendations related to the topic of data harmonisation and semantic interoperability in the context of spatial information by EMODnet and SeaDataNet, and it is considered as compliant to the international QA methodologies, the scientific quality control must be and is already covered in directives. The member states cannot guarantee that the data could be used in another way, especially in policy processes. But if they are partner of the database and see the advantages of multiple use (cheaper) then most of the expected problems should be negligible
238 on behalf of organisation research public research National Oceanography Centre, UK It’s essential that Member States agree common standards and metadata architecture so that data can be freely exchanged across borders and are curated to a high standard, building upon EMODnet and projects such as SEADATANET to increase the availability of data through improved national facilities. National data management frameworks (such as MEDIN in the UK) can help the adoption of common standards, and provide secure centralised data management facilities. They also provide a useful national point of contact to European initiatives. The existing European network of national and regional data centres has proven reliable and can work with the EuroGOOS regional system to develop data assembly centres and interconnections with national facilities.
227 on behalf of organisation research public research Institute of Marine Research, Norway Safe storage, availability and interoperable data require well functioning National Marine Data Centers following internationally best practices in data storage (Inspire directive, Emodnet, MyOcean) also securing easy access to the data. Implementing a credit system for datasets (underway) will help opening data access. Refusing new funding if data are not delivered and made available will be a good push. Sufficient funding for quality assurance and control is necessary
228 on behalf of organisation research public research Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) The Commission aims to start a flagship project to “prepare a seamless multi-resolution digital seabed map of European waters by 2020. This should be of the highest resolution possible, covering topography, geology, habitats and ecosystems.” Norwegian ocean areas cover 2.1 million km2, while the coastline of mainland Norway is ca. 100 000 km long. By 2012, only a few per cent of the Norwegian offshore is covered by modern high resolution multibeam echosounder data. Bathymetric mapping is the responsibility of the Norwegian Mapping Authority, while NGU is responsible for making geological seabed maps. NGU participates in the production of biotope maps and nature type/habitat maps. Although the present speed of seabed mapping in Norway is high, e.g. in the MAREANO programme, there will probably still be a long way to go by 2020. NGU plans to participate in the future EMODNET project, but map products will have to be based on existing data and NGU can only promise to deliver geological maps and possibly physical habitats. Map interpretations are stored in NGUs digital databases, and will be interoperable and available through EMODNET. Geological raw data are safely stored but generally not made available on internet via databases due to capacity problems. A great amount of seabed data from the Norwegian offshore hydrocarbon provinces exists. The data, which have been collected over a period of 50 years, include site survey data, pipe line survey data etc. These data are however not easily accessible as they are collected by a multitude of companies working for the oil and gas industry and partly by the oil companies themselves. The data are valuable but it would be a huge job to get hold of them and convert them to formats that can be used. Another problem is that the data are often confidential and owned by several license partners who all have to agree to release the data. In many cases it is therefore cheaper to remap an area than to start hunting for older data.
217 on behalf of organisation research public research Italian Long-term Ecosystem Research network The best option to have interoperable data available is to adopt international standards for their metadata description, schema definition, web services for discovery, view, download, transformation, exchange. International standards such the ones developed by ISO and OGC or inside the INSPIRE Directive process, are widely adopted also in the marine communities and should form the basis for the availability and interoperability of data.
213 on behalf of organisation research public research Alfred Wegener Institute There should be support in terms of binding as well as rewarding data policies, standardized mandatory data management plans and proportionate project funding to channel data thematically towards established scientific and national data centres. In return funding bodies should cooperate with data centres, which should proof a) certified data curation and expertise in quality assurance b) established data workflows from sampling to repository in terms of ‘fit for re-use’ c) the capacity to maintain and advance long-term e-infrastructures and web services. d) to give appropriate incentives to stimulate a positive data sharing attitude The Data Center PANGAEA – ‘Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science’ is a good example of how scientific institutional expertise as well as international level efforts can feed quality assured-data into pan European initiatives.
211 on behalf of organisation research public research PANGAEA-AWI-MARUM There should be support in terms of binding as well as rewarding data policies, standardized mandatory data management plans and proportionate project funding to channel data thematically towards established scientific and national data centres. In return funding bodies should cooperate with data centres, which should proof a) certified data curation and expertise in quality assurance b) established data workflows from sampling to repository in terms of ‘fit for re-use’ c) the capacity to maintain and advance long-term e-infrastructures and web services. d) to give appropriate incentives to stimulate a positive data sharing attitude. The ICSU World Data Center PANGAEA – ‘Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science’ is a good example of how scientific institutional expertise as well as international level efforts can feed quality assured-data into pan European initiatives. Member states should undertake actions to ensure and prove the ability for long-term operation of all involved data centers and archives. Both, technological as well as organisational capabilities have to be harmonised among those institutions. A standardised certification process is needed to ensure that all involved data archives comply with a certain level of technological as well as organisational matureness in order to ensure the sustainable availability of their services and data. Well accepted criteria catalogues such as the OAIS or NESTOR for catalogue for digital repository evaluation or those already used by WMO or by ICSU WDS could be used to define certification and audit processes.
203 on behalf of organisation research public research Flanders Heritage Agency To line up with internationally accepted standards.
229 on behalf of organisation research public research Maritime Institute in Gdansk please see attached document
10 individual reply civil society -   • Where legislation permits it, data should be made available without any unnecessary delays; • Data should be made available with the greatest level of detail available and not arbitrarily aggregated. Any aggregation of data should be in addition to the publication of raw data with the greatest level of granularity; • Data should, as far as possible, be made available in commonly used formats to facilitate comparisons over time and between one Member State and another. • Data should be published in an open access format, e.g. cvs (currently, some Member States choose to publish certain data, such as funding under the EU Fisheries Fund, in pdf format which makes analysis restrictive); • Data should be assembled at one central location (e.g. not at the regional level); • Information about the dataset itself, including descriptions of categories, information how to use the databank, etc., should be displayed in major EU languages (and at least in English).
31 individual reply private Law   There are many mechanisms for doing so. Some private companies (ie: Amazon) offer storage services in the cloud (for instance, some US public agencies store data in Amazon's cloud). Interoperability is a different matter: here, it is required to create a working group at EU level where Member States can share good practices and, more important, can agree compromises to make the necessary work to make their databases interoperables. The EU is already doing so in fields such as e-Identity (with the project STORK) or in the field of Health care (project EpSOS).
37 individual reply private air, land, space and miritime navigation researc   using cooperative instruments between public and private organizations to produce, process, storage and distribute information.
39 individual reply private coastal and maritime policy   Common rules and standards : metadata, data collection, data processing (methods, calbration and intercalibration, quality checking, delay), data management, compliance to international standards on data modeling and data transmission, transfer to digital, multiple archives, interoperable portals and catalogues, confidentiality categories and rules, minimum delay for dissemination for research data collected with public funds, transparent and non- discriminatory rules for access ...
42 individual reply private consultancy, sustainable marine development   - The use of binding clausules in project contracts to ensure that data collected within publicly funded science projects are sent to data centres (marine environmental data but also socio-economic data) - Obligatory use of common standards on data collection - The National data centres (embedded within research institutions) should work together in a network like SeaDataNet. However, Socio-economic and social data and information are not yet included, probably difficult to gather from data holding institutions, and might be an area that needs to be developed. In addition, although some marine related socio-economic and social data are collected and kept by e.g. EUROSTAT, there might be a need to develop common standards and methodology for this type of data (e.g. also a marine sub-set of data and information). The categories developed within the outline of the UN Regular Process (DOALOS) might provide a guideline on this. I am always willing to provide assistance and guiding on this.
43 individual reply private