The Arctic Glacial Ocean is a vast marine area centred on the North Pole. With its adjacent seas, it borders the northern coasts of Europe, Asia and America. Its main distinctive feature is that it is mostly covered by sheets of ice. But this glacial cover is gradually decreasing due to climate change.
The reduction of pack ice and the rising water temperatures are bringing about profound changes in the ecosystem and disrupting the entire marine food chain, including plankton, large carnivores and all fishery resources. This development raises concern among environmentalists and indigenous peoples. Furthermore, the reduction of the ice sheets is opening the way to new opportunities for economic operations, especially the extraction of oil and gas, exposing this already very fragile environment to new risks.