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Glossary

a

  • ADR

    Alternative Dispute Resolution: extra-judicial procedures used for resolving civil or commercial disputes.

  • ANEC

    Consumer organisation for the creation of technical standards.

  • Access to justice

    One of three priorities set out by the EU to enable individuals and companies to exercise their rights in an EU country other than their own. Other priorities are mutual recognition of judicial decisions and increased convergence in procedural law.

  • Accession negotiations

    Negotiations between the EU and countries preparing to join the EU, in which justice forms a key part.

  • Accession partnership

    Agreements between the EU and each country applying to join the EU, which set a framework for the countries to adopt or move closer to EU policies and work alongside the EU to achieve this objective.

  • Accession process

    Negotiations between the EU and countries applying to join the EU, and the convergence of applicants' laws with EU law.

  • Acquis communautaire

    The "acquis communautaire" or Community patrimony is the body of common rights and obligations that bind all the EU countries together within the EU.

  • Action plan

    Concerted measures between two or more countries to achieve a certain set of previously accepted objectives.

  • Administrative burden

    The cost of administrative activities that businesses conduct solely in order to comply with legal obligations.

  • Ageism

    Ageism is a prejudice against a person or a group on the grounds of age.

  • Alternative Dispute Resolution

    Extra-judicial procedures used for resolving civil or commercial disputes.

  • Amphetamine and amphetamine-type stimulants

    The amphetamine-like drugs include amphetamine itself (speed), methamphetamine and ecstasy (MDMA), among many others.

    They are central nervous system stimulants and among the most commonly used drugs in the EU. Amphetamines are sold in form of powders, liquids, crystals, tablets and capsules.

  • Amsterdam Treaty

    Reorganised cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs, setting as its objective the establishment of an area of freedom, security and justice. Certain sectors formerly in the intergovernmental section of the EU and EC Treaties were brought within the Community framework, giving EU institutions scope for action on a wider range of issues.

  • Applicable law

    Applicable law is a specific concept of private international law Choose translations of the previous link  and refers to the national law that governs a given question of law in an international context. A court hearing an action does not necessarily apply its national law to settle the dispute. The law that is actually applicable is determined by the rules of conflict of laws.

  • Article 29 Working Party

    The Data Protection Working Party was established by Article 29 of the 'Data Protection Directive български (bg)czech (cs)dansk (da)Deutsch (de)eesti (et)ελληνικά (el)español (es)Français (fr)Gaeilge (ga)italiano (it)latviešu (lv)lietuvių (lt)magyar (hu)Malti (mt)Nederlands (nl)polski (pl)português (pt)română (ro)slovenčina (sk)slovenščina (sl)suomi (fi)svenska (sv)'.
    It provides the Commission with independent advice on data protection matters, and helps in the development of harmonised policies for data protection in the EU countries.

  • Authentic instrument

    An authentic instrument is a document recording a legal act or fact whose authenticity is certified by a public authority. Certain authentic instruments are enforceable Choose translations of the previous link .

b

  • BEUC

    A European consumer organisation representing national consumer organisations.

  • BZP

    1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) is a synthetic substance.

    Like amphetamine and methamphetamine, BZP is a central nervous system stimulant, but with a much lower potency (around 10 % of that of d-amphetamine).

    EU wide control measures of BZP came into effect in March 2008.

  • Behavioural advertising

    An advertising based on the observation of the behaviour of individuals over time.
    It seeks to study the characteristics of this behaviour through their online actions (repeated site visits, interactions, keywords, online content production etc.). From this a specific profile can be developed to provide individuals with advertisements tailored to match their interests.

  • Belief

    EU citizenship confers the right to protection from discrimination on the grounds of, among other things, belief. This is enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights.

  • Best interests of the child

    In all actions relating to children, taken by public authorities or private institutions, the child's best interests must be a primary consideration.

  • Binding corporate rules

    Codes of practice drawn up and followed voluntarily by multinational organisations.
    These rules aim to ensure adequate safeguards for transfers of personal data between companies, which are part of the same corporate group, and that are bound by these corporate rules.
    They are based on European data protection standards.

  • Brussels I

    The expression Brussels I is often used to refer to Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 of 22 December 2000 on jurisdiction and the recognition Choose translations of the previous link  and enforcement Choose translations of the previous link  of judgments in civil and commercial matters.

  • Brussels IIa

    The expression Brussels IIa is often used to refer to Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003 on jurisdiction and the recognition Choose translations of the previous link  and enforcement Choose translations of the previous link  of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility. The Regulation lays down rules governing international jurisdiction Choose translations of the previous link  and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in cases concerning divorce, separation and annulment of marriage and judgments concerning parental responsibility.

  • Buprenorphine

    Buprenorphine is one of the synthetic opioid drugs used in substitution therapy.

    This is a form of treatment which can help problem drug users to regain a normal life while being treated with a substance that stops him from experiencing withdrawal symptoms.

  • Business-to-business (B2B) contract

    A contract concluded between businesses (persons acting in the exercise of their trade or profession).

  • Business-to-consumer (B2C) contract

    A contract concluded between a consumer (a natural person acting for a purpose outside its trade or profession) and a business (person acting in the exercise of its trade or profession).

c

  • "Crack" cocaine

    "Crack" Cocaine is a street term for cocaine that has been treated for use by smoking or inhaling vapours to provide immediate and intense effects.

  • Cannabis

    Cannabis is naturally occurring drug made from parts of the cannabis plant. It is a mild sedative and a mild hallucinogen. The main active compound in cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    It is the most widely used drugs in the EU.

  • Case law

    Case-law is used internationally to refer to rules of law flowing from a set of convergent decisions of the courts. The case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union français is particularly rich in decisions on the interpretation of the Union treaties, directives and regulations. It is a source of Union law.

  • Charter of Fundamental Rights

    The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union consolidates rights contained in Community Treaties, EC Court of Justice case-law, international conventions, constitutional traditions common to the Member States and a range of European Parliament declarations.

  • Child

    As defined by art.1 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.

  • Cloud computing

    Internet-based computing whereby software, shared resources and information are on remote servers ('in the cloud').
    Cloud computing describes a new consumption and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet.

  • Co-decision

    The co-decision procedure български (bg)czech (cs)dansk (da)Deutsch (de)eesti (et)ελληνικά (el)español (es)Français (fr)Gaeilge (ga)italiano (it)latviešu (lv)lietuvių (lt)magyar (hu)Malti (mt)Nederlands (nl)polski (pl)português (pt)română (ro)slovenčina (sk)slovenščina (sl)suomi (fi)svenska (sv) was introduced under the Treaty of Maastricht.
    It gives the European Parliament the power to adopt legislative texts jointly with the Council of the European Union. The Council cannot adopt legislation without the EP's assent.

  • Cocaine

    Cocaine is a stimulant drug extracted from the leaves of the coca bush.

    The chemical name of the processed drug is cocaine hydrochloride and it is generally sold 'on the street' as a crystalline powder, known by a range of street names, such as 'coke', 'snow' and 'Charlie'.

  • College

    As specified in the rules of procedure pdf български (bg)czech (cs)dansk (da)Deutsch (de)eesti (et)ελληνικά (el)español (es)Français (fr)Gaeilge (ga)italiano (it)latviešu (lv)lietuvių (lt)magyar (hu)Malti (mt)Nederlands (nl)polski (pl)português (pt)română (ro)slovenčina (sk)slovenščina (sl)suomi (fi)svenska (sv) , the Commission must meet at least once a week for a weekly meeting of the Commissioners Choose translations of the previous link .

  • Comitology

    Committees consisting of representatives from EU countries and chaired by the Commission.
    They assist the Commission as it drafts legislative instruments.

  • Commission Communication

    A Communication is a policy document with no mandatory authority. The Commission takes the initiative of publishing a Communication when it wishes to set out its own thinking on a topical issue. A Communication has no legal effect.

  • Commission Recommendation

    In EU law Choose translations of the previous link , a Recommendation is a legal instrument that encourages those to whom it is addressed to act in a particular way without being binding on them. A recommendation enables the Commission (or the Council) to establish non-binding rules for the EU countries or, in certain cases, Union citizens.

  • Common Frame of Reference

    In January 2003 the Commission adopted an Action Planpdf Choose translations of the previous link 

  • Conflict of jurisdiction

    See "international jurisdiction Choose translations of the previous link ".

  • Conflict of laws

    See "applicable law Choose translations of the previous link ".

  • Consular Protection

    An EU citizen, travelling to or living in a non-EU country where his/her EU country is not represented by an embassy or consulate, has the EU right to enjoy the protection of the diplomatic and consular authorities of any EU country under the same conditions as the nationals of that country.

  • Consumer Markets Scoreboard

    The collection and interpretation of data on consumer markets is available on the DG SANCO website Choose translations of the previous link .

  • Consumer Policy Network (CPN)

    Network of senior officials in the field of consumer policy and forum for policy coordination and development.

  • Consumer Policy Strategy (CPS)

    Communication from the Commission that sets out the challenges, role, priorities and actions of EU consumer policy pdf български (bg)czech (cs)dansk (da)Deutsch (de)eesti (et)ελληνικά (el)español (es)Français (fr)Gaeilge (ga)italiano (it)latviešu (lv)lietuvių (lt)magyar (hu)Malti (mt)Nederlands (nl)polski (pl)português (pt)română (ro)slovenčina (sk)slovenščina (sl)suomi (fi)svenska (sv) for several years.

  • Consumer Protection Cooperation System

    IT tool that enables cooperation between national consumer protection authorities in the field of consumer protection enforcement.

  • Consumer acquis

    The body of consumer rights applicable to all EU countries.

  • Contractual obligations

    Where two people conclude a contract, they generally enter into a two-way obligation - one undertakes to provide the other with goods or a service and the other undertakes to pay the price. Each of the parties to the contract is also bound by an obligation towards the other to compensate him if the contract is not performed properly or not performed at all.

  • Controller

    Natural or legal person, public authority, agency or any other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data.

  • Convention

    Conventions can also be known as treaties or agreements and are the most widely-used instruments of public international law Choose translations of the previous link . A convention is an agreement between several States and/or international organisations laying down the law in relations between them and between their respective nationals.

  • Coreper

    The Permanent Representatives Committee, comprising representatives of EU countries, is responsible for the preparation of all meetings of the Council at Ministerial level.

  • Council

    The Council of the European Union is the responsible body which endorses EU legislation.

d

  • (Proposal for a) Directive on Consumer Rights (CRD)

    This proposal for a Directive aims to merge four existing EU consumer Directives into a single updated and modernised set of rules for consumer rights.

  • Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA)

    A process whereby a conscious and systematic effort is made to assess privacy risks to individuals in the collection, use and disclosure of their personal data. DPIAs help to identify privacy risks, foresee problems and develop solutions.

  • Data subject

    An identified or identifiable person to whom specific personal data relates.
    It is someone who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identification number or to one or more specific factors (physical, physiological, mental, economic, cultural, social).

  • Debtor

    The party owing a debt to another party. EU measures relating to insolvency proceedings having cross-border effects make it more difficult for a debtor to escape obligations.

  • Decision

    In EU law Choose translations of the previous link , a decision is a legislative instrument that is binding in its entirety on all those to whom it is addressed.

  • Dignity

    The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights includes a section dealing with dignity. Citizens can refer to it to challenge decisions taken by EU institutions and Member States -only when they implement the EU law.

  • Directive

    In EU law Choose translations of the previous link  a directive is a legislative instrument that is binding on the EU countries to whom it is addressed as regards the result to be attained but leaves them free to determine the form and methods.

  • Discrimination

    Non-discrimination is one of the values on which the EU is founded. The Treaty protects against discrimination on the basis of EU nationality. The Charter of Fundamental Rights prohibits discrimination on any ground, such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation as well as on the grounds of nationality in the area of EU law.

  • Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR)

    In 2005 the Commission financed through a grant under the 6th Framework Progamme for Research, a European academic network working on the development of a Common Frame of Reference.

    The output was presented in 2008 and is known as the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR). Currently it is an academic text which contains model rules, principles and definitions, supplemented by 10 volumes of commentary and explanatory materials on the model rules.

  • Drug Demand Reduction

    This term covers actions which seek to reduce the demand for illicit drugs : prevention programmes, treatment, harm reduction, rehabilitation and social reintegration services.

  • Drug Supply Reduction

    This term covers the range of measures and legal instruments to reduce the supply of illicit drugs.

    This includes drug cultivation, production and trafficking of illicit drugs, the diversion of chemical precursors imported outside the EU, drugs-related crime and the associated money laundering.

  • Dynamic packages

    Two or more services for a single holiday or trip (such as flights, hotel or car rental) are bought at the same time and from the same supplier, or from different suppliers that are commercially linked (such as airlines, hotel chains and car rental companies), and are put together according to the consumer's specific needs.

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  • EDDRA

    Exchange on Drug Demand Reduction Action (EDDRA) is the EMCDDA's online databanks which provides details on a range of evaluated prevention, treatment and harm reduction interventions in EU countries, as well as interventions within the criminal justice system.

  • EU acquis

    Also known as "acquis communautaire". The entire body of legislation of the EU, of which a significant body relates to justice. Applicant countries must accept the acquis before they can join the EU.

  • EU citizenship

    The 1992 Maastricht Treaty established the concept of European citizenship. EU citizenship confers a range of rights, including freedom of movement Choose translations of the previous link  and the right to vote and stand in local and European elections in every EU country.

  • EU law

    EU law means the set of rules adopted by the European Union. EU law consists mainly of the Treaties, the instruments adopted by the institutions under the Treaties, such as Regulations Choose translations of the previous link  and Directives Choose translations of the previous link . The case-law of the Court of Justice is also one of the sources of EU law. EU law is distinguished from public international law Choose translations of the previous link  in a number of respects.

  • Ecstasy

    Ecstasy refers to synthetic substances that are chemically related to amphetamines, but differ in their effects.

    Tablets are the most common form and the drug is popular on the clubbing scene.

  • Election

    The process through which citizens elect representatives to democratic institutions. EU citizenship confers the right to participate and vote in elections for the European Parliament and local municipal elections, no matter which EU country the citizen resides in.

  • Enforceability

    Enforceability is a concept of civil procedure. Judgments are enforceable in that they can be enforced Choose translations of the previous link  with the aid, if necessary, of the forces of law and order. Judgments and authentic instruments Choose translations of the previous link , that are certified enforceable, are the main documents that are enforceable. Enforceability is confined to the State of the court which gave the judgment. To be enforceable abroad, the judgment must be declared enforceable (by what is known in some countries as the exequatur Choose translations of the previous link  procedure) or in the UK and in Ireland be registered.

  • Enforcement

    The enforcement of a judgment consists of securing compliance with it, if necessary by means of coercion as allowed by the law, including the intervention of the forces of law and order. If you win your case in the courts but the other side does not spontaneously comply with the court's order, you can go to the police or a bailiff, depending on the situation, to have the judgment carried out.

  • Equal treatment

    According to Article 19 of the Treaty the Council has the power to take appropriate action to combat discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

  • Equality

    EU citizenship confers the right to protection from discrimination on the grounds of, among other things, sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. This is enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights pdf български (bg)czech (cs)dansk (da)Deutsch (de)eesti (et)ελληνικά (el)español (es)Français (fr)Gaeilge (ga)italiano (it)latviešu (lv)lietuvių (lt)magyar (hu)Malti (mt)Nederlands (nl)polski (pl)português (pt)română (ro)slovenčina (sk)slovenščina (sl)suomi (fi)svenska (sv)

  • European Civil Code

    A policy option proposed in the Green Paper on policy options for progress towards a European contract law for consumers and businesses. It would establish binding European civil law rules, which would replace national laws.

  • European Consumer Centres Network (ECC-Net)

    EU-wide network of 29 European Consumer Centres Choose translations of the previous link , one in each of the 27 EU countries as well as in Iceland and Norway.

  • European Consumer Consultative Group (ECCG)

    The ECCG Choose translations of the previous link  is the Commission's main forum for consulting national and European consumer organisations.

  • European Convention on Human Rights

    Signed in Rome in 1950 under the aegis of the Council of Europe, the Convention established a system of international protection for human rights and set up a European Court of Human Rights.

  • European Council

    Institution of the EU responsible for defining the general political direction and priorities of the Union without formal legislative power.
    It comprises the Heads of State and of Government of the EU countries along with its serving President and the President of the Commission.

  • European Court of Justice (ECJ)

    The highest court in the EU as regards matters of EU law.

  • European Economic and Social Committee (EESC)

    The EESC is an advisory body of the EU representing the interests of the various economic and social groups.

  • Executive Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC)

    The EAHC is an EU executive agency that implements the EU Health Programme, the Consumer Programme and the Better Training for Safer Food initiative.

  • Exequatur

    Exequatur, is a concept specific to the private international law Choose translations of the previous link  and refers to the decision by a court authorising the enforcement in that country of a judgment, arbitral award, authentic instruments Choose translations of the previous link  or court settlement given abroad.

  • Expert Group on a Common Frame of Reference in the area of ECL

    The Commission adopted a Decision pdf български (bg)czech (cs)dansk (da)Deutsch (de)eesti (et)ελληνικά (el)español (es)Français (fr)Gaeilge (ga)italiano (it)latviešu (lv)lietuvių (lt)magyar (hu)Malti (mt)Nederlands (nl)polski (pl)português (pt)română (ro)slovenčina (sk)slovenščina (sl)suomi (fi)svenska (sv) to establish an Expert Group to conduct a feasibility study on a Common Frame of Reference in the area of European contract law.

    The role of the group was to examine the feasibility of a " user-friendly " European contract law instrument covering the life-cycle of a contract. It was composed of European legal scholars and representatives of consumer and business organisations, representating the main legal systems and traditions within the EU.

f

  • Forum

    The forum is a specific concept of private international law. It means the courts of a given country in which an action is brought. The concept of forum underlies the concepts of lex fori Choose translations of the previous link  and forum-shopping Choose translations of the previous link .

  • Forum-shopping

    Forum-shopping is a specific concept of private international law Choose translations of the previous link . A person who takes the initiative of bringing a court action may be tempted to choose his court on the basis of the law applied there. A person starting an action might be tempted to choose a forum Choose translations of the previous link  not because it is the most appropriate forum but because the conflict of laws Choose translations of the previous link  rules that it applies will prompt the application of the law that he or she prefers.

  • Free association

    The right to associate freely in the EU has been established by the case-law of the European Court of Justice.

  • Free expression

    The right to free expression in the EU has been established by the case-law of the European Court of Justice.

  • Free movement of persons

    This is a fundamental right of EU citizenship Choose translations of the previous link , allowing citizens to travel, live and work freely throughout the EU. The Treaty of Amsterdam communitised the area, giving the Commission a greater role in proposing initiatives.

  • Freedom

    All citizens of the EU have the right to move, live and work freely within the EU.

  • Freedoms

    The EU and EC Treaties guarantee four fundamental market freedoms: free movement of goods, services, people and capital.

  • Fundamental freedoms

    For EU citizens to be able to exercise fundamental freedoms particularly the right to live and work throughout the EU the judiciaries of the Member States must cooperate and standardise procedures to remove any barriers faced by the citizen in carrying out personal or economic administrative and litigious activity.

  • Fundamental rights

    EU Treaties and case-law provide for fundamental human rights as well as rights connected with EU citizenship, such as freedom of movement throughout the EU. These rights are summed up in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, proclaimed in December 2000.

g

  • Gender

    Identifies the social relations between men and women. It refers to the relationship between men and women, boys and girls, and how this is socially constructed. Gender roles are dynamic and change over time.

  • Gender Analysis

    Is the methodology for collecting and processing information about gender (in)equalities. Gender analysis is conducted through a variety of tools and frameworks.

  • Gender Awareness

    Gender awareness is an understanding that there are socially determined differences between women & men based on learned behavior, which affect their ability to access and control resources. This awareness needs to be applied through gender analysis into programmes, policies and evaluation.

  • Gender Needs

    Leading on from the fact that women and men have differing roles based on their gender, they will also have differing gender needs. These needs can be classified as either strategic or practical needs.

  • Gender Planning

    Gender Planning refers to the process of planning policy, programmes, projects and evaluation that are gender sensitive and which take into account the impact of differing gender roles and gender needs of women and men in the target community or sector.

  • Gender Roles

    Gender roles are learned behaviours in a given society/community, or other special group, that condition which activities, tasks and responsibilities are perceived as male and female.

  • Gender equality

    Gender equality is the result of the absence of discrimination on the basis of a person's sex in opportunities and the allocation of resources or benefits or in access to services.

  • Gender equity

    Gender equity entails the provision of fairness and justice in the distribution of benefits and responsibilities between women and men. The concept recognises that women and men have different needs and power and that these differences should be identified and addressed in a manner that rectifies the imbalances between the sexes.

  • Gender identity

    A person's sense of being male or female, resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental influences and a person's concept of being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent.

  • Gender mainstreaming

    Integration of the gender perspective into all policies with a view to promoting equality between women and men.

  • Gender-blind

    Gender blindness is the failure to recognise that gender is an essential determinant of social outcomes impacting on projects and policies. A gender blind approach assumes that a policy or programme does not have unequal (even if unintended) outcome on women and men.

  • Gender-sensitivity

    Gender sensitivity encompasses the ability to acknowledge and highlight existing gender differences, issues and inequalities and incorporate these into strategies and actions.

  • Green Paper (European Commission)

    A Green Paper is a consultation document published by the Commission on a specific topic to prompt reactions from interested circles on a variety of questions. The Commission's aim in publishing a Green Paper is to better determine the future orientations of its policy on the question.

h

  • HEBDO

    Weekly meeting of the Commissioners' heads of cabinets.

  • Harassment

    Harassment is any unwanted physical or verbal conduct that offends or humiliates others. It can take many forms: threats, intimidation, or verbal abuse; unwelcome remarks or jokes about subjects like ethnicity, religion, disability or age; displaying racist or other offensive pictures or posters

  • Harm Reduction

    The aims of a harm reduction approach are to reduce the incidence of drug use-related infections (HIV, hepatitis C) and overdose, and encourage active drug users to contact health and social services.

    Interventions include needle and syringe programmes, drug consumption rooms and pill testing.

  • Heroin

    Heroin is a natural opiate made from morphine. Morphine is extracted from the opium poppy. The most commonly known 'street' heroin is sold as 'brown' and the less common white heroin (a salt form).

    It can either be smoked or dissolved in water and injected or, if high purity, it can be snorted.

  • Homosexuals

    EU citizenship confers the right to protection from discrimination on the grounds of, among other things, sexual orientation. This is enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights.

  • Human rights

    The case-law of the European Court of Justice recognises the principles laid down in the Council of Europe's Convention on Human Rights. This respect for human rights is incorporated into Article 6 of the EU Treaty. Action is outlined for cases where a Member State seriously and persistently breaches the principles.

i

  • Impact Assessment (IA)

    An assessment Choose translations of the previous link  of the potential economic, social and environmental consequences of any new Commission initiative.

  • Infringement proceedings

    Formal proceedings against an EU country for breaching or failure to implement EU law.

  • International human rights treaty

    Treaty setting out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children. The UNCRC has been ratified by 193 States, including all EU Member States. The UNCRC is the basis for Article 24 of the Charter protecting the rights of the child.

  • International jurisdiction

    International jurisdiction refers to the fact that the courts of a given country will be the most appropriate to hear and determine a case that has an international dimension. A dispute has an international dimension where, for example, the parties have different nationalities or are not resident in the same country. In such a situation the courts of several countries might have jurisdiction in the case, and we have what is known as a conflict of jurisdiction. The rules of international jurisdiction lay down criteria for determining the country whose courts will have jurisdiction in the case.

j

  • JLS

    The former DG Justice, Liberty and Security, divided into DG Home and DG Justice since 1 July 2010.

  • Justice

    The administration of law according to agreed principles. One of the main aims of EU policy is access to justice for EU citizens, no matter the country to which they move.

l

  • Legal Highs

    ' Legal Highs' are synthetic psychoactive or herbal substances which produce the same, or similar effects, to illicit drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy.

    They are designed to circumvent drug control legislation and marketed as plant food, bath crystals or pond cleaners.

  • Letter of Formal Notice

    A letter of formal notice is the first formal step in any infringement proceedings.
    It offers the respective EU country an opportunity to respond to an allegation that it is in breach of Community law.

  • Lex causae

    The lex causae is a specific concept of private international law Choose translations of the previous link  and refers to the law governing the substance of the case, designated by the rules of conflict of laws. See applicable law Choose translations of the previous link .

  • Lex fori

    The lex fori is a specific concept of private international law and refers to the law of the court in which the action is brought. Where an action is brought in a court and has an international dimension, the court must consider the law applicable Choose translations of the previous link  to the case. In certain circumstances, the lex fori will apply. Traditionally the lex fori governs questions of procedure, regardless of the lex causae.

  • Lex loci delicti

    The lex loci delicti is a specific concept of private international law Choose translations of the previous link  and refers to the law of the country where, in terms of non-contractual obligations, the harmful event occurred.

  • Location data

    Any data processed in an electronic communications network, indicating the geographic position of the terminal equipment of someone using a publicly available electronic communications service.

m

  • Maintenance

    The law requires members of the same family to provide mutual assistance on the basis of family solidarity: parents must feed, educate and maintain their children. In some EU countries children must assist their parents in case of need. A divorced spouse is obliged to pay maintenance to a former spouse who has custody of their children. This obligation is generally discharged by a monthly payment known as maintenance.

  • Mephedrone

    A stimulant drug belonging to the chemical family of cathinones which is a group of drugs that are 'cousins' of the family of amphetamine compounds.

    Mephedrone has been marketed by online suppliers as a legal alternative to ecstasy or cocaine.

    An EU wide control ban came into effect in 2010.

  • Methadone

    Methadone is used in substitution therapy.

    This is a form of treatment which can help problem drug users able to regain a normal life while being treated with a substitute substance that stops him from experiencing withdrawal symptoms.

  • Multiple discrimination

    Any combination of discrimination on the grounds of sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

  • Multiple discrimination

    Any combination of discrimination on the grounds of sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

n

  • Non-contractual obligations

    There is a non-contractual obligation where a person who is responsible for loss sustained by another person is required to compensate the victim, in cases not linked to the performance of a contract, such as traffic accidents, environmental damage or defamation.

o

  • Optional Instrument

    An instrument of European contract law which could be chosen on the initiative of the parties to a contract governing transactions within the EU.

    It would not replace national contract laws, but would co-exist in parallel as "second regime".

p

  • Parliamentary Question (PQ)

    Question from a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) to the Commission or the Council.

  • Personal Data breach

    A breach of security leading to the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to personal data.
    It concerns personal data transmitted, stored or otherwise processed by a publicly available electronic communications service in the Community.

  • Personal data

    Any information relating to an identified or identifiable person ('data subject') who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identification number or to one or more specific factors (physical, physiological, mental, economic, cultural, social).

  • Political, economic and social rights

    These rights are enshrined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, proclaimed by EU leaders in Nice in December 2000.

  • Political, economic and social rights

    These rights are enshrined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, proclaimed by EU leaders in Nice in December 2000.

  • Positive action

    Specific measures to compensate for disadvantages experienced by people suffering discrimination due to ethnic origin, age or other characteristics which might lead to them being treated unfairly. Making different arrangements (special training etc.) are ways of improving chances.

  • Precursors

    Precursor chemicals are required to make illegal drugs such as cocaine, heroin, ecstasy and methamphetamines.

    Their licit international movement is controlled by international conventions and at EU level via EU regulations.

  • Privacy

    Each citizen's right to privacy is upheld in various EU instruments, including EU Court of Justice case-law and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.

  • Privacy by design

    Privacy by design aims to build privacy and data protection upfront, into the design specifications and architecture of information and communication systems and technologies, in order to facilitate compliance with privacy and data protection principles.

  • Privacy enhancing technologies (PETs)

    They aim to protect privacy by eliminating or reducing personal data or by preventing undesired processing of personal data, without losing the functionality of the information system.
    It either requires positive action by consumers, or should be directly included in the information systems.

  • Private international law

    Private international law, as used in its broad sense, means the set of legal rules governing international relations between private individuals.

  • Processing of personal data

    Processing of personal data means any operation or set of operations which is performed upon personal data, whether or not by automatic means (for example: collection, recording, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, deleting or destruction, etc.).

  • Processor

    The processor is the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or any other body which processes personal data on behalf of the controller.

  • Productive roles

    Refer to the activities carried out by men and women to produce goods and services either for sale, exchange, or to meet the economic needs of the family. For example in agriculture, productive activities include plating, animal husbandry and gardening that refers to farmers themselves, or for other people as employees.

  • Property

    The EU Court of Justice in its extensive case-law has enshrined the right to own property.

  • Public international law

    Public international law means the set of legal rules governing international relations between public bodies such as States and international organisations. Conventions Choose translations of the previous link  and uniform laws Choose translations of the previous link  are common instruments of public international law.

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  • RAPID

    Database containing the press releases of the Commission since 1985.

  • REITOX

    Reitox is a network of national focal points (NFPs) set up in the 27 EU countries, Norway, the Commission Choose translations of the previous link  and in the candidate countries.

    These information collection and exchange points form Reitox, the European Information Network on Drugs and Drug Addiction and provides data to the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction.

  • Race

    The EU is firmly opposed to any discrimination based on race. Article 19 of the Treaty empowers the EU to pass laws against discrimination based, for instance, on racial or ethnic origin.

  • Racism

    Racism is contrary to the fundamental values of human dignity, freedom, equality and respect for human rights upon which the European Union is founded. The EU is working, from both a preventative and repressive perspective, to combat all its forms and manifestations.

  • Racist behaviour / Racist violence or hatred

    Framework Decision 2008/913/JHA on combating certain forms and expressions of racism and xenophobia by means of criminal law bans the intentional public incitement to violence or hatred based on race, colour, religion, descent or national or ethnic origin.

  • Rapporteur

    A Member of the European Parliament (MEP), selected from within the competent parliamentary committee to draft a report preparing the Parliament's position.

  • Reasonable accommodation

    Article 5 of the Employment Equality Directive states that employers have a duty of reasonable accommodation with respect to candidates or employees with a disability. This means that employers are required to take appropriate measures to enable a person with a disability to have access to employment or training unless doing so would impose a disproportionate burden on the employer. Reasonable accommodation would include, for example, providing wheelchair access, adjusting working hours, adapting office equipment or simply redistributing tasks between the members of a team. To determine the disproportionate burden, account should be taken in particular of the financial and other costs entailed, the scale and financial resources of the organisation and the possibility of obtaining public funding or any other assistance.

  • Reasoned Opinion

    The second formal step in any infringement proceedings Choose translations of the previous link .
    The Commission formally advises an EU country that it is in breach of its Treaty obligations and describes the rectifying action. The EU country is required to comply within a set time limit.

  • Recognition

    Recognising a judgment given in one EU country in another means agreeing that it may have effect there. Judgments basically have effect only in the State where they are given. Recognition in another State is possible only if the law of the other State so allows or if an international convention or an EU instrument provides for it.

  • Regulation

    In EU law, a Regulation is an instrument of general scope that is binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all EU countries. They are directly applicable, so they require no transposal into the EU countries' domestic law and directly confer rights or impose obligations.

  • Religion

    All EU residents are free to practise their own religion. This freedom is enshrined in the EU Treaties, the European Convention on human rights and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.

  • Reproductive roles

    Refer to the activities needed to ensure the reproduction of society's labour force. This includes child bearing, rearing, and care for family members such as children, older people and workers. These tasks are done mostly by women.

  • Rome I

    Rome I is the expression often used to refer to Regulation (EC) No 593/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable Choose translations of the previous link  to contractual obligations Choose translations of the previous link .

  • Rome II

    Rome II is the expression often used to refer to Regulation (EC) No 864/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 July 2007 on the law applicable Choose translations of the previous link  to non-contractual obligations Choose translations of the previous link .

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  • Segregation

    Segregation is separating people of different races or classes, and usually refers to this practice in schools and other public service; this is a form of discrimination.

  • Sensitive data

    It usually concerns 3 types of data:

    - revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs or trade union membership;

    - concerning health or sex life;

    - relating to offences, criminal convictions or security measures.

  • Sex

    All forms of discrimination based on sex, e.g. pay-related, are contrary to EU principles.

  • Sex disaggregated data

    For a gender analysis, all data should be separated by sex in order to allow differential impacts on men and women to be measured.

  • Shadow (rapporteur)

    Member of the European Parliament (MEP) who monitors a dossier for a political group other than that of the rapporteur.

  • Standard contractual clauses

    Legal tools to provide adequate safeguards for data transfers from the EU or the European Economic Area (EEA) to third countries.
    The Commission has adopted three Decisions declaring Standard Contractual Clauses to be adequate. Companies can incorporate the clauses into a transfer contract.

  • Statistical discrimination

    Statistical discrimination describes an economic theory of inequality based on stereotypes against persons or a group of people to whom they are not culturally attuned. Often statistical discrimination is used in the employer/ employee context. The theory states that job seekers who do not share the same values as their potential employer, may either not be hired in the first place or will earn less.

  • Stockholm Programme

    Five-year plan български (bg)czech (cs)dansk (da)Deutsch (de)eesti (et)ελληνικά (el)español (es)Français (fr)Gaeilge (ga)italiano (it)latviešu (lv)lietuvių (lt)magyar (hu)Malti (mt)Nederlands (nl)polski (pl)português (pt)română (ro)slovenčina (sk)slovenščina (sl)suomi (fi)svenska (sv) with actions for justice and home affairs (JHA) in the EU countries for the period 2010-14.

  • Subsidiarity

    An EU principle which states that decisions should be taken as closely as possible to the citizen. Subsidiarity requires the EU to check whether action at Community level will be more effective than action at national, regional or local level.

  • Substitution Treatment

    Drugs have been developed to help treat heroin addiction.

    These include opiate substitutes for heroin such as methadone and subutex (buprenorphine) and also drugs like naltrexone that block the effects of heroin.

  • Synthetic Drugs

    Synthetic drugs are artificially produced substances for the illicit market which are almost wholly manufactured from chemical compounds in illicit laboratories such as amphetamines, methamphetamines, benzodiazepines.

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  • The four freedoms

    This refers to the free movement of goods, services, people and capital - the original 'raison d'être' of the European Community.

  • The four freedoms

    This refers to the free movement of goods, services, people and capital - the original 'raison d'être' of the European Community.

  • Toolbox

    A better regulation tool containing model rules , principles and definitions concerning the areas covered by present and future European contract law.

    It would be used by European institutions in the preparation and negotiation of legal instruments. Its purpose would be to ensure the coherence and better quality of Union legislation.

  • Tortious or delictual obligations

    See non-contractual obligations Choose translations of the previous link 

  • Transatlantic Consumer Dialogue (TACD)

    The TACD is a forum of US and EU consumer organisations which develops and agrees on joint consumer policy recommendations for the US government and the EU.

  • Treaties

    The EU Treaties state that the European Union is founded on the principle of liberty, democracy, human rights, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law.

  • Treaty of Lisbon

    The Treaty of Lisbonpdf is the latest revision of the EU Treaties. It came into force on 1 December 2009.

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  • UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)

    The main human rights treaty setting out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children.

  • Unaccompanied minors

    Children who find themselves outside their country of origin and have been separated from both parents and other relatives, and are not being cared for by an adult who, by law or custom, is responsible for doing so.

  • Unfair commercial practices

    'Unfair commercial practices' are prohibited in business to consumer (B2C) relationships. What is considered an 'unfair commercial practice' is defined by the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (article 5.2).

  • Uniform laws

    Uniform laws are instruments prepared jointly by several States and/or international organisations to help States wishing to reform and modernise their legislation. International organisations Choose translations of the previous link  such as UNCITRAL and UNIDROIT draft uniform laws.

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  • Victimisation

    Victimisation means someone is treated badly or differently for having made a complaint about discrimination or supporting a colleague who has made a complaint.

  • Views of the child

    In accordance with the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union children are entitled to such care and protection as is necessary for their well-being. Their views have to be taken into account and their best interests have to be a primary consideration in all actions related to them.

    In accordance with the Charter children may express their views freely. Such views shall be taken into consideration on matters which concern them in accordance with their age and maturity.

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  • Xenophobia

    Fear of foreigners. Xenophobia is contrary to the fundamental values of human dignity, freedom, equality and respect for human rights upon which the European Union is founded. The EU is working, from both a preventative and repressive perspective, to combat all its forms and manifestations.