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  • Business-to-business (B2B) contract

    A contract concluded between businesses (persons acting in the exercise of their trade or profession).

  • Business-to-consumer (B2C) contract

    A contract concluded between a consumer (a natural person acting for a purpose outside its trade or profession) and a business (person acting in the exercise of its trade or profession).


  • Common Frame of Reference

    In January 2003 the Commission adopted an Action Planpdf Choose translations of the previous link 


  • Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR)

    In 2005 the Commission financed through a grant under the 6th Framework Progamme for Research, a European academic network working on the development of a Common Frame of Reference.

    The output was presented in 2008 and is known as the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR). Currently it is an academic text which contains model rules, principles and definitions, supplemented by 10 volumes of commentary and explanatory materials on the model rules.


  • European Civil Code

    A policy option proposed in the Green Paper on policy options for progress towards a European contract law for consumers and businesses. It would establish binding European civil law rules, which would replace national laws.

  • Expert Group on a Common Frame of Reference in the area of ECL

    The Commission adopted a Decision pdf български (bg)czech (cs)dansk (da)Deutsch (de)eesti (et)ελληνικά (el)español (es)Français (fr)Gaeilge (ga)italiano (it)latviešu (lv)lietuvių (lt)magyar (hu)Malti (mt)Nederlands (nl)polski (pl)português (pt)română (ro)slovenčina (sk)slovenščina (sl)suomi (fi)svenska (sv) to establish an Expert Group to conduct a feasibility study on a Common Frame of Reference in the area of European contract law.

    The role of the group was to examine the feasibility of a " user-friendly " European contract law instrument covering the life-cycle of a contract. It was composed of European legal scholars and representatives of consumer and business organisations, representating the main legal systems and traditions within the EU.


  • Optional Instrument

    An instrument of European contract law which could be chosen on the initiative of the parties to a contract governing transactions within the EU.

    It would not replace national contract laws, but would co-exist in parallel as "second regime".


  • Toolbox

    A better regulation tool containing model rules , principles and definitions concerning the areas covered by present and future European contract law.

    It would be used by European institutions in the preparation and negotiation of legal instruments. Its purpose would be to ensure the coherence and better quality of Union legislation.