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Key facts and figures about the EU countries
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There are now twenty-seven member countries in the European Union. Below you will find some key facts on the member countries of the EU as well as some information on agriculture and food plus links to further information.

The Let's Explore Europe website contains lots more useful information about the member countries split by topics: history, farming, climate, the sea, etc. You can also test your knowledge of Europe in an Interactive Quiz.

A number of other countries are hoping to join the EU at some date in the future. Croatia, Turkey and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia have been granted the status of candidate countries. If you are interested in finding out more about the enlargement process, please go to the website of the Directorate General for Enlargement.  

To find out more about agriculture in the EU, please visit the website of the Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development.

Austria (Österreich)

Facts and figures

Austrian flag

Capital City:  Vienna
Year of entry to the EU:  1995
Total area:  83,858 km²
Population:  8.3 million
Currency:  euro
Official EU language:  German

Food and Agriculture

Austrian cheeseMain farming activities: cereals (mainly wheat), cattle, pigs, poultry, grap
Main foods produced: meat, dairy products, wine, cereals

Austrian Commissioner

Commissioner Johannes Hahn

Johannes Hahn

Responsible for Regional Policy

For more information visit Johannes Hahn's website.

To find out more about Austria, click here.

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Belgium (België/Belgique)

Facts and figures

Belgian flagCapital City:  Brussels
Year of entry to the EU:  Founding member
Total area:  30,528 km²
Population:  10.7 million
Currency:  euro
Official EU languages:  French, Dutch and German

Food and Agriculture

On the farm in BelgiumMain farming activities: cereals (mainly wheat), cattle, pigs, poultr
Main foods produced: beef, pig-meats, chicken, eggs, dairy products, beer, fruit and vegetables

Belgian Commissioner

Commissioner Karel de Gucht

Karel de Gucht

Responsible for Trade

For more information visit Karel de Gucht's website.

To find out more about Belgium, click here.

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Bulgaria (България)

Facts and figures

Bulgarian flagCapital City:  Sofia
Year of entry to the EU:  2007
Total area:  111,000 km²
Population:  7.6 million
Currency:  Lev
Official EU language:  Bulgarian

Food and Agriculture

Rose cultivation in BulgariaMain Farming activities:  sheep, pigs, poultry, cereals, fruit and vegetables, grapes, tobacco, potatoes, sunflower seeds, and soybeans, attar of roses
Main foods produced: dairy products (especially yogurt and white brined cheese), meat, wine, tomatoes, peppers, beans, potatoes, peaches, apples, apricots, melons, nuts

Bulgarian Commissioner

Commissioner Kristalina Georgieva

Kristalina Georgieva

Responsible for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response

For more information visit Kristalina Georgieva's website.

To find out more about Bulgaria, click here.

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Cyprus (Kypros, Kibris)

Facts and figures

Cypriot flagCapital City:  Nicosia
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  9,250 km²
Population:  0.8 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU languages:  Greek and English

Food and Agriculture

Goats in CyprusMain farming activities: sheep, goats, poultry, fruit and vegetable
Main foods produced: meat, cheese (e.g. ‘halloumi’ made from sheep and goat’s milk), seeds, olives, potatoes, herbs, fruit, wine, olive oil

Cypriot Commissioner

Commissioner Androulla Vassiliou

Androulla Vassiliou

Responsible for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth

For more information visit Androulla Vassiliou's website.

To find out more about Cyprus, click here.

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Czech Republic (Česká republika)

Facts and figures

Czech flagCapital City: Prague
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  78 866 km²
Population:  10.5 million
Currency:  Czech koruna
Official EU language:  Czech

Food and Agriculture

A typical Czech dishMain farming activities: cereals, potatoes, fruit, hops, wine grapes, cattle, pigs, poultry
Main foods produced: beer, wine, apples, pears, plums, cherries, milk, butter, cheese, poultry and meat products

Czech Commissioner

Commissioner Štefan Füle

Štefan Füle

Responsible for Enlargement and the European Neighbourhood Policy

For further information visit Štefan Füle's website.

To find out more about the Czech Republic, click here.

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Denmark (Danmark)

Facts and figures

Danish flagCapital City: Copenhagen
Year of entry to the EU:  1973
Total area:  43,094 km²
Population:  5.5 million
Currency:  Danish krone
Official EU language:  Danish

Food and Agriculture

Pigs on a farm in DenmarkMain farming activities: cereals, cattle, pigs
Main foods produced: wheat, barley, oats, rye, pig-meat (bacon, pork), dairy products

Danish Commissioner

Commissioner Connie Hedegaard

Connie Hedegaard

Responsible for Climate Action

For more information visit Connie Hedegaard's website.

To find out more about Denmark, click here.

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Estonia (Eesti)

Facts and figures

Estonian flagCapital City: Tallinn
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  45,000 km²
Population:  1.3 million
Currency:  Estonian kroon
Official EU language:  Estonian

Food and Agriculture

Typical Estonian breadMain farming activities: cereals, cattle, pigs, poultry
Main foods produced: cereals, dairy products, pig-meat, eggs

Estonian Commissioner

Commissioner Siim Kallas

Siim Kallas

Responsible for Transport

For further information visit the website of Siim Kallas.

To find out more about Estonia, click here.

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Finland (Suomi)

Facts and figures

Finnish flagCapital city:  Helsinki
Year of entry to the EU:  1995
Total area:  338,000 km²
Population:  5.3 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU languages:  Finnish and Swedish

Food and Agriculture

Finnish countrysideMain farming activities: cereals, cattle, potatoes, deer
Main foods produced: dairy products, meat, eggs, potatoes, cereals

Finnish Commissioner

Commissioner Olli Rehn

Olli Rehn

Responsible for Economic and Monetary Affairs

For further information visit Olli Rehn's website.

To find out more about Finland, click here.

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France

Facts and figures

French flagCapital City: Paris
Year of entry to the EU:  Founding member
Total area:  550,000 km²
Population:  64.3 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU language:  French

Food and Agriculture

Typical French cheesesMain farming activities: cereals, oilseeds, cattle, wine grapes, fruit and vegetables, sugar beet
Main foods produced: meat, dairy products, cheeses, cereals, wine, sunflower oil, sugar, fruit and vegetables

French Commissioner

Commissioner Michel Barnier

Michel Barnier

Responsible for the Internal Market and Services

For further information visit Michel Barnier's website.

To find out more about France, click here.

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Germany (Deutschland)

Facts and figures

German flagCapital City: Berlin
Year of entry to the EU:  Founding member
Total area:  356,854 km²
Population:  82 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU language:  German

Food and Agriculture

On the farm in GermanyMain farming activities: cattle, pigs, poultry, cereals, wine grapes, fruit and vegetables, hops
Main foods produced: beef and pig-meat, dairy products, poultry, fruit and vegetables, beer, wine

German Commissioner

Commissioner Günther Oettinger

Günther Oettinger

Responsible for Energy

For further information visit Günther Oettinger's website.

To find out more about Germany, click here.

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Greece (Ellada)

Facts and figures

Greek flagCapital City: Athens
Year of entry to the EU:  1981
Total area:  131,957 km²
Population:  11.2 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU language:  Greek

Food and Agriculture

Watering the crops in GreeceMain farming activities: sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy, cereals, olive trees, fruit and vegetables, wine grape
Main foods produced: olive oil, olives, figs, tomatoes, melons, cheese and yoghurt from sheep and goats, sheep and goat meat, eggs, wine

Greek Commissioner

Commissioner Maria Damanaki

Maria Damanaki

Responsible for Fisheries and Maritime Affairs

For further information visit Maria Damanaki's website.

To find out more about Greece, click here.

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Hungary (Magyarország)

Facts and figures

Hungarian flagCapital City:  Budapest
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  93,000 km²
Population:  10 million
Currency:  Forint    
Official EU language:  Hungarian  

Food and Agriculture

Sheep in HungaryMain farming activities: cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, cereals, fruit and vegetables, grapes
Main foods produced: cereals, wine, fruit and vegetables, pig-meat, poultry

Hungarian Commissioner

Commissioner László Andor

László Andor

Responsible for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion

For further information visit László Andor's website.

To find out more about Hungary, click here.

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Ireland (Éire)

Facts and figures

Irish flagCapital City: Dublin
Year of entry to the EU:  1973
Total area:  70,000 km²
Population:  4.5 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU languages:  Irish and English

Food and Agriculture

The Irish countrysideMain farming activities: cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, horticulture
Main foods produced: meat, dairy products, eggs, fruit and vegetables

Irish Commissioner

Commissioner Máire Geoghegan-Quinn

Máire Geoghegan-Quinn

Responsible for Research and Innovation

For further information visit Máire Geoghegan-Quinn's website.

To find out more about Ireland, click here.

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Italy (Italia)

Facts and figures

Italian flagCapital City:  Rome
Year of entry to the EU:  Founding member
Total area:  301,263 km²
Population:  60 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU language:  Italian

Food and Agriculture

Buffalo in ItalyMain farming activities: cattle, pigs, cereals, fruit, vegetables, rice, olive trees, grapes
Main foods produced: wheat (pasta), maize, rice, olive oil, olives, meat, dairy products, fruit and vegetables, wine, eggs, poultry

Italian Commissioner

Commissioner Antonio Tajani

Antonio Tajani

Responsible for Industry and Entrepreneurship

For further information visit Antonio Tajani's website.

To find out more about Italy, click here.

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Latvia (Latvija)

Facts and figures

Latvian flagCapital City: Riga
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  65,000 km²
Population:  2.3 million
Currency:  Lats
Official EU language:  Latvian

The Latvian countrysideFood and Agriculture

Main farming activities: cattle, pigs, poultry, cereals, oilseeds, potatoes, vegetables
Main foods produced: meat, dairy products, eggs, oilseeds, cereals, eggs, potatoes

Latvian Commissioner

Commissioner Andris Piebalgs

Andris Piebalgs

Responsible for Development

For further information visit Andris Piebalgs' website.

For more information about Latvia, click here.

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Lithuania (Lietuva)

Facts and figures

Lithuanian flagCapital City: Vilnius
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  65,000 km²
Population:  3.3 million
Currency:  Litas
Official EU language:  Lithuanian

Lithuanian sausageFood and Agriculture

Main farming activities: cattle, pigs, cereals, vegetables
Main foods produced: meat and dairy products, cereals, eggs, pig-meat, potatoes

Lithuanian Commissioner

Commissioner Algirdas Šemeta

Algirdas Šemeta

Responsible for Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud

For further information visit Algirdas Šemeta's website.

To find out more about Lithuania, click here.

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Luxembourg

Facts and figures

Luxembourg flagCapital City: Luxembourg
Year of entry to the EU:  Founding member
Total area:  2,586 km²
Population:  0.5 million
Currency:  Euro        
Official EU language:  French and German

Food and Agriculture

A vineyard in LuxembourgMain farming activities: cereals, cattle, sheep, goats, poultry, wine grapes
Main foods produced: meat and dairy products, cereals, eggs, wine

Luxembourg Commissioner

Commissioner Viviane Reding

Viviane Reding

Responsible for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship

For further information visit Viviane Reding's website.

To find out more about Luxembourg, click here.

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Malta

Facts and figures

Maltese flagCapital City: Valletta
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  316 km²
Population:  0.4 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU languages:  Maltese and English

Food and Agriculture

A farm in MaltaMain farming activities: cattle, pigs, poultry, vegetables, potatoes
Main foods produced: vegetables, dairy products, pig-meat products, potatoes, eggs, poultry

Maltese Commissioner

Commissioner John Dalli

John Dalli

Responsible for Health and Consumer Policy

For further information visit John Dalli's website.

To find out more about Malta, click here.

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The Netherlands (Nederland)

Facts and figures

Dutch flagCapital City: Amsterdam
Year of entry to the EU: Founding member      
Total area:  41,526 km²
Population:  16.4 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU language:  Dutch

Food and Agriculture

Dutch cheeseMain farming activities: fruit and vegetables, cattle, pigs, horticulture
Main foods produced: dairy products, fruit and vegetables, beef, pig-meat, poultry

Dutch Commissioner

Commissioner Neelie Kroes

Neelie Kroes

Responsible for the Digital Agenda

For further information visit the website of Neelie Kroes.

To find out more about the Netherlands, click here.

 

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Poland (Polska)

Facts and figures

Polish flagCapital City: Warsaw
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  312,679 km²
Population:  38.1 million
Currency:  Zloty
Official EU language:  Polish

Food and Agriculture

A farm in PolandMain farming activities: cattle, pigs, poultry, cereals, potatoes,fruit and vegetables, sugar beet
Main foods produced: wheat, rye, potatoes, sugar, pig-meat, dairy products, apples, berry fruits, strawberries, raspberries, currants, onions, cabbage, cauliflower

Polish Commissioner

Commissioner Janusz Lewandowski

Janusz Lewandowski

Responsible for Financial Programming and Budget

For further information visit Janusz Lewandowski's website.

To find out more about Poland, click here.

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Portugal

Facts and figures

Portuguese flagCapital City: Lisbon
Year of entry to the EU:  1986
Total area:  92,072 km²
Population:  10.6 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU language:  Portuguese

Food and Agriculture

Portuguese countrysideMain farming activities: fruit and vegetables, wine grapes, cattle, poultry, potatoes, olives, rice
Main foods produced: rice,potatoes, wine, fruit and vegetables, olives, olive oil, dairy products

Portuguese Commissioner

resident José Manuel Barroso

President José Manuel Barroso

President of the European Commission

For further information visit President Barroso's website.

To find out more about Portugal, click here.

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Romania (România)

Facts and figures

Romanian flagCapital City: Bucharest
Year of entry to the EU:  2007
Total area:  237,500 km²
Population:  21.5 million
Currency:  Leu
Official EU language:  Romanian

Food and Agriculture

On the farm in RomaniaMain farming activities: cereals, sunflowers, potatoes, soybeans, sugar beet, tobacco, wine and grapes, cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, rabbits, bee keeping
Main foods produced: meat, edible oil, cheese and dairy products, processed fruit and vegetables, honey, tobacco

Romanian Commissioner

Commissioner Dacian Cioloş

Dacian Cioloş

Responsible for Agriculture and Rural Development

For further information visit the website of Dacian Cioloş.

To find out more about Romania, click here.

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Slovakia (Slovensko)

Facts and figures

Slovak flagCapital City: Bratislava
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  48,845 km²
Population:  5.4 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU language:  Slovak 

Slovak sheepFood and Agriculture

Main farming activities: cattle, pigs, poultry, cereals, oilseeds, potatoes
Main foods produced: maize, barley, pig-meat, seeds, eggs, poultry

Slovak Commissioner

Commissioner Maroš ŠefčovičMaroš Šefčovič

Responsible for Inter-Institutional Relations and Administration

For further information visit Maroš Šefčovič's website.

To find out more about Slovakia, click here.

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Slovenia (Slovenija)

Facts and figures

Slovenian flagCapital City: Ljubljana
Year of entry to the EU:  2004
Total area:  20,273 km²
Population:  2 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU language:  Slovenia

Food and Agriculture

A farm in SloveniaMain farming activities: cereals, cattle, pigs, poultry, root crops, wine grapes
Main foods produced: dairy and meat products, wine

Slovenian Commissioner

Commissioner Janez Potočnik

Janez Potočnik

Responsible for the Environment

For further information visit Janez Potočnik's website.

To find out more about Slovenia, click here.

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Spain (España)

A vineyard in Spain

Facts and figures

Spanish flagCapital City: Madrid
Year of entry to the EU:  1986
Total area:  504,782 km²
Population:  45.8 million
Currency:  Euro
Official EU language:  Spanish

Food and Agriculture

A vineyard in SpainMain farming activities: cereals, fruit and vegetables, wine grapes, olives, pigs, cattle, sheep and goats, poultry
Main foods produced: wine, maize, barley, rice, citrus fruits, bananas, vegetables, olive oil, olives, pig-meat, sheep and goat meat

Spanish Commissioner

Commissioner Joaquín Almunia

Joaquín Almunia

Responsible for Competition

For further information visit Joaquín Almunia's website.

To find out more about Spain, click here.

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Sweden (Sverige)

Facts and figures

Swedish flag Capital City: Stockholm    
Year of entry to the EU:  1995
Total area:  449,964 km²
Population:  9.2 million
Currency:  Swedish krona
Official EU language:  Swedish

Food and Agriculture

Harvesting in SwedenMain farming activities: cereals, cattle, pigs, deer
Main foods produced: wheat, barley, oats, dairy products, pig-meat, beef, venison

Swedish Commissioner

Commissioner Cecilia Malmström

Cecilia Malmström

Responsible for Home Affairs

For further information visit Cecilia Malmström's website.

To find out more about Sweden, click here.

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United Kingdom

Facts and figures

United Kingdom flagCapital City: London
Year of entry to the EU:  1973
Total area:  244,820 km²
Population:  61.7 million
Currency:  Pound sterling
Official EU language:  English

Food and Agriculture

An orchard in the UKMain farming activities: cereals, cattle, sheep,pigs, poultry, potatoes, vegetables
Main foods produced: wheat, barley, potatoes, vegetables, beef, sheepmeat, pig-meat, dairy products

United Kingdom Commissioner

Catherine Ashton, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

Catherine Ashton

High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

For further information, visit Catherine Ashton's website.

To find out more about the United Kingdom, click here.

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Last update: 09/10/2012  |Top