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    Integration and Market Openness

    This section shows how the Members States are performing in terms of trade integration and market openness and their evolution over time. They cover intra-EU and extra-EU imports and exports and foreign direct investment (inward and outward).

    The indicators monitored in this section help identify:

    • factors that contribute to progress made,
    • areas where progress still has to be made.

    How to interpret the indicators

    Integration and openness are important indicators of how the Single Market is performing overall and the extent to which policy goals have been reached – partly as a result of national policy measures taken.

    They are, necessarily, a simplification of reality and can only serve as “early warning function” to highlight potential obstacles, weaknesses and room for improvement.

    But several indicators per policy area, taken together, can show patterns of good or less successful integration and/or application of the rules by national governments.