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Glossary - P


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P

PASSWORD
a sequence of characters or words that a subject presents to a system for purposes of validation or verification. See authentication.

PCI
Projects of Common Interest under the IDA programme. The decision setting up the second phase of IDA (Interchange of Data between Administrations) provided a series of guidelines for the identification of projects of common interest. These are IDA-supported sectoral projects that work towards establishing operational and interoperable trans-European telematics networks. They should encourage the development and implementation of telematics networks for:

Economic and monetary union, Community policies and activities, inter-institutional information exchange and globalisation of IDA networks
The functioning of the European Agencies and bodies
Policies related to the free movement of persons and
Protection of the life and health of humans, animals and plants, the rights of European consumers, the living conditions of persons in the European Union, or the fundamental interests of the Community.

The original decisions also give clear priority in establishing the IDA work programme for projects of common interest, and in the allocation of Community financial resources. This applies to projects which enhance the economic viability of public administrations, European Community institutions, Member States and the regions, and which, by means of the establishment or enhancement of a sectoral network, would:

Directly contribute to removing obstacles to free movement of goods, persons, services and capital
Directly contribute to successful implementation or satisfactory operation of economic and monetary union
Encourage inter-institutional co-operation between the Community institutions as well as with national and regional administrations, including national and regional parliaments
Contribute to protection of the financial interests of the Community and Member States or to the fight against fraud
Facilitate the preparation for EU enlargement
Facilitate industrial competitiveness in the Community, with particular emphasis on the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises or
Provide benefits to persons in the European Union.

PDF
Portable Document Format - A translation format developed by Adobe used primarily for distributing files across a network, or on a Web site. Files with a .pdf extension have been created in another application and then translated into .pdf files so they can be viewed by anyone, regardless of platform. (Adobe Acrobat Reader is free for download on the Web: http://www.adobe.com/)

P2P : PEER TO PEER
Decentralised file sharing, computation, communication and more.

PIN
Personal identification number.

PKCS
Public Key Cryptography Standards

PKI
Public Key Infrastructure

PKICL
PKI Client Libraries

PKICUG
Public Key Infrastructure Closed User Group was launched in 1999 by the IDA programme, It provides a Certification Authority (CA) available to the members of the IDA projects of common interest (PCI)

PLAINTEXT
a synonym for cleartext

PORTAL
Any well-used gateway to the Internet, especially those sites designed to serve as a 'front door' and thus the first page that users see when accessing the Web. Portals typically provide large catalogues of other sites, powerful search engines for locating information, and e-mail facilities or other attractive Web services.

PLUGS-IN
Programs that can easily be installed and used as extensions to a web browser to provide additional functions such as audio, video and support for flashy graphics.

PRIVACY POLICY
A statement about what information is being collected; how the information being collected is being used; how an individual can access his/her own data collected; how the individual can opt-put; and what security measures are being taken by the parties collecting the data.

PRIVATE KEY
the private (secret) key associated with a given person's public key for a public-key cryptographic system.

PROTOCOL
Rules governing the exchange of data between computers networks.

PROXI SERVER
A server between your browser and a Web server, which monitors all requests that pass through it. The proxy server intercepts all requests and checks that it doesn't already have the requested web page stored on its hard disk. If it has, then the proxy server returns the requested Web page from its own hard disk. If the proxy server doesn't have the requested page, then it forwards the request to the web server. Proxy servers speed up internet access for large numbers of users, and can also be used by companies to filter out requests for unsuitable web pages. They are also used as firewalls to isolate a local network (a company intranet, for example) from security problems which may arise from direct connection to the internet, such as hacking and viruses.

PUBLIC KEY
the publicly-known key associated with a given person's use of a public-key cryptographic system.

PUBLIC-KEY CERTIFICATE
a statement, possibly on paper but more often transmitted electronically over an information network, which establishes the relationship between a named individual (or organisation) and a specified public key. In principle, it could (but need not) include other information such as mailing address, organisational affiliation and telephone number.

PUBLIC SERVICE AGREEMENTS (PSAs)
Set out department's objectives for public services with measurable targets for their delivery.