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Table 2. The potential risks following occupational exposure to nanoparticles (HSE 2004)

´╗┐Synthesis process Particle formation Potential inhalation risks Potential dermal/ingestion risks
Gas phase In air Direct leakage from reactor
Product recovery
Post recovery processing and packaging
Airborne contamination of workplace
Handling of product
Cleaning/maintenance of plant
Vapour phase On substrate Product recovery
Post recovery processing and packaging
Dry contamination of workplace
Handling of product
Cleaning/maintenance of plant
Colloidal Liquid suspension Drying of product (processing and spillage) Spillage/contamination of workplace
Handling of product
Cleaning/maintenance of plant
Attrition Liquid suspension Drying of product
(processing and spillage)
Spillage/contamination of workplace
Handling of product
Cleaning/maintenance of plant

Source: SCENIHR  The appropriateness of existing methodologies to assess the potential risks associated with engineered and adventitious products of nanotechnologies (2006),
3.9.2 Exposure Assessment Approaches, p. 38