Growth

European Construction Sector Observatory

European Construction Sector Observatory

The European Construction Sector Observatory (ECSO) is an initiative under COSME. It regularly analyses and carries out comparative assessments on the construction sector in all 28 EU countries – aiming to keep European policymakers and stakeholders up to date on market conditions and policy developments.

What are ECSO's objectives?

  • to monitor market conditions and trends, as well as national/regional strategies and progress towards the 5 priorities of Construction 2020
  • to encourage knowledge sharing and the replication of good practice
  • to raise awareness on policy measures and initiatives impacting the construction value chain

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Country fact sheets

ECSO profiles the construction industry in the 28 EU countries, and produces detailed Country Fact Sheets (CFS) for each country. Each CFS provides an analysis of key figures, macro-economic indicators, economic drivers, issues and barriers, innovation, the national/regional policy and regulatory framework, and the current status and national strategy to meet Construction 2020 objectives.

To view and download ECSO findings, please click on a country on the map below. All EU countries have data available and are marked in blue.

Austria

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Austria totalled 74,614 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 46.5% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 11.2% between 2010 and 2016, mostly driven by the 11.5% growth in real estate activities, followed by 11.3% in the narrow construction and 11.2% in architectural and engineering activities.

Production in construction of buildings experienced a 5.9% increase between 2010 and 2013, followed by a 4.5% drop by 2016, however a 1.2% increment is recorded over the period of 2010-2016. Similarly, production in civil engineering rose up by 14.4% in 2014, which was the highest since 2010, followed by a slight decrease of 3.1% in 2016 keeping a 10.8% increase since 2010 (Figure 2).

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 33.9 billion in 20162, with the narrow construction subsector contributing to 48.8% of the total added value3, followed by real estate activities (28.3%), manufacturing (12.2%) and architectural and engineering activities (10.7%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 17.0% in 2014, slightly above the EU-28 average of 16.9%, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (8.7%) (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Belgium

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Belgium totalled 186,454 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 60.3% of the total firms, followed by 23.1% of real estate activities. The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector has increased by 21.4% during the period 2010-2016, mainly led by the real estate sub-sector, which has doubled the number of companies. Production in construction of buildings dropped by 1.8% between 2010 and 2016, the largest decline among all sub-sectors, while the construction sub-sector decreased only by 0.8% over the same period of time. Conversely, production in civil engineering experienced a 10% growth until 2012 and it has been decreasing ever since, however it overall rose up by 2.7% between 2010 and 2016.

The total value added of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 30.4 billion in 20162, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 57.1% of the total3 (EUR 17.4 billion), followed by real estate activities (EUR 5.9 billion, i.e. 19.5% of the total), manufacturing (EUR 4.0 billion, i.e. 13.3% of the total) and architectural and engineering activities (EUR 3.1 billion, 10.1%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 14.4% in 2014, slightly below the EU-28 average of 16.9%, with the real estate sub-sector having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Bulgaria

In 20161, there were 52,057 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Bulgaria, with the construction and the real estate sub-sectors accounting for 37.7% and 40.0% of the total, respectively (Figure 1). The number of firms in the broad construction sector increased by 2.6% since 2010 (50,714), with real estate activities experiencing the greatest increase of 16.4%. Conversely, the number of enterprises in a narrow construction sector decreased by 7.2%. Production in construction dropped by 17.3% over 2010-2016, with a peak in 2015 due to the rapid consumption of EU funds and a drop in 2016 as these were exhausted2 (Figure 2).

Additionally, production in construction of buildings and production in civil engineering dropped by 21.2% and 12.4% respectively on over the same period.

The total added value of the broad construction sector3 amounted to EUR 2.6 billion in 20164, with the construction sub-sector accounting for 55.0% of the total (EUR 1.4 billion), followed by real estate activities (19.5%), manufacturing (15.5%) and architectural and engineering activities (10.1%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 14.4% in 2014, which is slightly lower than the EU-28 average of 16.9%. The real estate sub-sector constitutes the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Raiffeisenbank, Growth in industry and trade, decline in construction, 2017; Stroitel, Annual report to FIEC, Construction Industry in Bulgaria in 2015.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

4 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

Croatia

In 20161, there were 31,146 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Croatia, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 57.6% of the total number of firms (Figure 1).

Compared to 2010, the number of firms operating in the broad construction sector decreased by 20.4%, with the real estate sub-sector experiencing the greatest drop (-30.2%.), followed by construction (-27.3%) and manufacturing (-11.2%). Conversely, the number of enterprises in architectural and engineering activities increased by 19.0% during the same period. Production in construction dropped significantly between 2010 and 2015, but showed signs of improvements in 20162, as reflected in Figure 2. In general terms, the volume index of production in construction fell by 30.1% since 2010. This decline was led by the construction buildings, which decreased by 33.6%, whereas production of civil engineering decreased by 26.7%.

The total added value3 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 3.2 billion in 20164 with the construction sub-sector accounting for 55.2% of the total (EUR 1.8 billion), followed by manufacturing (18.7%) architectural and engineering activities (13.7%) and real estate activities (12.7%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in GDP reached 16.0% in 2014, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

4 Please note that this 2015 and 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

Cyprus

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Cyprus totalled 11,994 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 66.4% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector decreased by 12.3% from 2010 to 2016. Company growth has been positive in two of the four sub-sectors from 2010 to 2016, namely in engineering activities and related technical consultancy as well as in real estate activities which grew respectively by 11.6% and 16.5%. On the other hand, the construction and manufacturing sub-sector saw a decrease by respectively 17.1% and 11.3%. Despite the overall decrease, both sectors have been following an upward path in recent years. In line with the drop in the number of companies, production has decreased dramatically from 2010 to 2016, by 47%. However, since 2014, production has picked up again (Figure 2).

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 777.6 million in 20162 with the construction sub-sector contributing to 68.7% of the total3 (EUR 534.6 million), followed by manufacturing contributing to 16.1% of the total, real estate activities with 7.8%, and architectural and engineering activities with 7.3% (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 13.4% in 2014, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4). This is below the EU-28 average, which stood at 16.9% in 2016.

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Czech Republic

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector of the Czech Republic totalled 285,610 in 20161, with the construction sub-sector accounting for 58.9% of the total (Figure 1). Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased slightly between 2010 and 2016 (+0.4%), with real estate activities reporting the largest increment (+10.3%), while the number of companies in narrow construction declined by 3.3%. Production in construction dropped by 16.8% over 2010-2013, subsequently recovering until 2015. However, it fell again in 2016, following the exhaustion of EU funds in 2015, being 12.7% lower than 2010 (Figure 2). Specifically, production in construction of buildings declined by 7.5% over 2010-2016, while production in civil engineering declined by 22.7% over the same period.

In 20162, the total added value of the broad construction sector was EUR 13.2 billion (Figure 3). The narrow construction sub-sector contributed to 46.7% of the total, followed by real estate activities, manufacturing and architectural and engineering activities. The share of gross value added3 of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 15.3% in 20134, slightly below the EU28 average of 16.9%, with real estate having the largest share (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

4 Data for subsequent years is incomplete.

Denmark

In 20161, there were 70,120 enterprises in the broad construction sector in Denmark, with the construction sub-sector accounting for 47.7% of the total (Figure 1). The number of firms in the broad construction sector has increased by 10.9% since 2010, with architectural and engineering activities experiencing the greatest growth (+16.8%), followed by real estate activities (+16.6%). At the same time, the number of enterprises in manufacturing declined by 1.2%.

Production in the construction of buildings has been recovering since 2010, exceeding the 2010 level by 17.2% in 2016 (Figure 2). Similarly, production in civil engineering surpassed the 2010 level by 36.6% in 2016, due to the increase in public investment in transport infrastructure (see TO 1 - Investment conditions and volumes).

The total added value2 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 26.8 billion in 20163, with the construction sub-sector accounting for 39.3% of the total, followed by real estate activities (37.9%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 14.7% in 20144, compared to 16.9% in the EU28, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

4 No data available for subsequent years.

Estonia

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Estonia totalled 18,085 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 52.6% of the total firms, and the real estate activities for 28.8%. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 23.6% during the period 2010-2016, mostly driven by the 44.9% growth in architectural and engineering activities, followed by 27.7% in the narrow construction and 17.2% in manufacturing.

Production in construction of buildings experienced a 69.6% increase between 2010 and 2016, followed by a 43.9% increment in construction over the same period of time. Similarly, production in civil engineering rose up by 39% in 2013, which was the highest since 2010, however it dropped by 24% in 2016 keeping a 5.6% increase since 2010 (Figure 2).

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 2.2 billion in 20162, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 39.1% of the total3 (EUR 863 million), followed by real estate activities (32.1% of the total), manufacturing (23.8%), and architectural and engineering activities (5.1%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 17.2% in 2014, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (8.5%) (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

4 No data available for subsequent years.

Finland

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Finland totalled 82,470 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 54.1% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 16.6% between 2010 and 2016 mostly driven by the 54.9% growth in real estate sub-sector companies. Conversely, the number of companies in the construction and architectural and engineering sub-sectors remained stable, whereas the manufacturing sub-sectors experienced a 12.5% decline. Production in the construction of buildings has been on the road to recovery since 2010, exceeding the 2010 level by 13.6% in 2016 (Figure 2). Similarly, production in civil engineering has been steadily increasing over the same years, surpassing its 2010 level by 17.7% in 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 19.1 billion in 20162, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 54.4% of the total3 (EUR 10.4 billion), followed by real estate activities (EUR 4.4 billion, i.e. 23.1% of the total), architectural and engineering activities (EUR 2.6 billion, i.e. 13.4%) and manufacturing (EUR 1.8 billion, i.e. 9.2%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 18.3% in 2014, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

France

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in France totalled 834,617 in 20161 (Figure 1). Companies in the narrow construction sector accounted for 60.7% of the total, followed by real estate activities (26.3%), architectural and engineering activities (11.0%) and manufacturing (2.0%). The overall number of enterprises in the broad construction sector grew by 19.6% between 2010 and 2016, driven by the 46.5% increase in the number of companies in real estate activities and the 24.0% growth in the number of enterprises in architectural and engineering activities. Production in construction declined by 12.9% over 2010-2016. In particular, production in construction of buildings dropped by 13.9% and production in civil engineering experienced an 8.7% fall over the same period (Figure 2).

In 20162, the total value added of the broad construction sector was EUR 155.4 billion (Figure 3), with the narrow construction sub-sector having the largest share (55.8%), followed by real estate activities (23.7%), architectural and engineering activities (13.7%) and manufacturing (6.8%). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP3 reached 18.7% in 2014, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4). This is slightly above the EU-28 average of 16.9%.

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Germany

In 2016, there were 650,813 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Germany, with the narrow construction sector (NACE F) accounting for 55.6% of the total (Figure 1). The number of companies in the broad construction sector has increased by 21.2% since 2010 (536,874), with the most significant increase occurring in 2013-2014 (+22.3%). Since a low point in 2010, production in construction has been fluctuating, but registered an overall growth rate of 10.4% over 2010-2016. In particular the civil engineering segment recorded a strong performance over this period (+18.6%), while growth in the construction of buildings stood at 8.5% (Figure 2).

In 2016, the total value added of the broad construction sector was EUR 233.6 billion (Figure 3), with the narrow construction sub-sector having the largest share (43.7%, i.e. EUR 102.2 billion). It was followed by real estate activities with a share of 29.8% (EUR 69.6 billion), architectural and engineering activities with 16.6% (EUR 38.7 billion), and manufacturing with 9.9% (EUR 23.0 billion). In terms of gross value added as a share of GDP1, real estate had the highest share (9.8%) in 2016, followed by narrow construction (4.3%) (Figure 4).

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Greece

In 20161, 148,750 enterprises were operating in the broad construction sector in Greece, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 57.8% of the total firms (Figure 1). Compared to 2010, the number of firms operating in the broad construction sector decreased by 17.7%. The manufacturing sub-sector experienced the greatest drop (-35.1%), followed by construction (-20.8%) and architectural/engineering activities (-7.6%). Only real estate activities reported a slighter loss, with its companies declining by 4.9% since 2010.

Production in the construction of buildings dropped by 58.8% between 2010 and 2016, although it showed signs of stabilisation since 2012, without, however, fully reaching the pre-crisis level (Figure 2). This collapse goes in parallel with the drop in demand and the housing market crash following the crisis (see Access to housing). Similarly, production in civil engineering suffered from severe budget cuts and fall in infrastructure investments (see TO 1- Stimulating favourable investment conditions- Investment conditions and volumes), thus decreasing by 59.2% between 2010 and 2012. It subsequently started to recover, increasing by 62% between 2012 and 2016. However, it is still far from full recovery, standing 34% below the 2010 level.

The total added value2 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 5.7 billion in 20163, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 60.2% of this total (i.e. EUR 3.4 billion), followed by manufacturing (18.0%), architectural and engineering activities (13.5%) and real estate (8.3%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 19.8% in 2014, with the real estate activities sub-sector having the largest contribution (Figure 4), which is almost 3 percentage point higher than the EU28 average, which stands at 16.9%.

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

Hungary

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Hungary amounted to 118,595 in 20161 (Figure 1). Companies in the narrow construction sector accounted for 47.3% of the total, followed by real estate activities (27.6%), architectural and engineering activities (19.7%) and manufacturing (5.4%). The overall number of enterprises in the broad construction sector experienced a 8.4% decline over 2010-2016, mainly led by the 16.8% and 12.2% drops in the number of narrow construction and manufacturing companies.

Production in construction recorded a 11.5% decrease over 2010-2016, dropping by 6.5% in 2012 relative to 2010 and despite an increase of 9.0% noted in 2015, dropped again by 18.8% in 2016, below the 2010 value (Figure 2). Similarly, production in construction of buildings and civil engineering dropped by 6.8% and 17.5% over 2010-2016, respectively, being below the 2010 level.

In 20162, the total value added of the broad construction sector was EUR 6.1 billion (Figure 3), with the narrow construction sub-sector having the largest share, followed by real estate activities, manufacturing and architectural and engineering activities.

The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP3 reached 11.6% in 2015, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Ireland

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Ireland was estimated at 78,833 in 20161 (Figure 1). Companies in the narrow construction sector represented 69% of the total, followed by real estate activities (17.6%), architectural and engineering activities (10.7%) and manufacturing (2.8%). The overall number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in 2016 was 6.7% above the 2010 level, with the real estate activities sub-sector experiencing the highest increase (21.8%), followed by architectural and engineering activities (8.3%). Companies in the manufacturing and construction sub-sectors saw a 2.5% and 3.4% increase in numbers, respectively.

Production in construction of buildings dropped drastically between 2010 and 2012 (-23.2.3%) (Figure 2), but started to recover after 2013, increasing with 38.7% from the 2010 level by 2016. Similarly, production in civil engineering fell by 33% in2011 and despite a steady increase over 2012-2015, it was still 1.4% below the 2010 level by 2016.

In 2016, the total value added of the broad construction sector was estimated at EUR 10.6 billion (Figure 3), with the construction sub-sector having the largest share (60.8%, i.e. EUR 6.5 billion), followed by architectural and engineering activities (16%, i.e. EUR 1.7 billion), real estate activities (15.6%, i.e. EUR 1.6 billion) and manufacturing (7.5%, EUR 800 million). The share of gross value added of narrow construction and real estate activities2 in the GDP3 reached 2.6% and 5.7% in 2016, respectively (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 No data available for manufacturing and architectural and engineering activities.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Italy

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Italy totalled 1,025,687 in 20161 (Figure 1). Companies in the narrow construction sector accounted for 50.4% of the total, followed by real estate activities (23.6%), architectural and engineering activities (19.3%) and manufacturing (6.7%). The overall number of enterprises in the broad construction sector declined by 8.9% between 2010 and 2016, driven by the 14.9%, 10.2% and 9.7% decrease in the number of narrow construction, manufacturing companies, and architectural and engineering activities respectively. Conversely, the number of companies in real estate activities increased by 8.9%. During this period the overall number of enterprises has been decreasing gradually every year, except for 2016 when there was a small 1.6% increase. Production in construction2 experienced a continuous decline, dropping by 32.2% between 2010 and 2016 (Figure 2).

In 2016, the total value added of the broad construction sector was EUR 90.6 billion (Figure 3), with the narrow construction sub-sector having the largest share (52.9%, i.e. EUR 47.9 billion), followed by real estate activities (19.7%, i.e. EUR 17.8 billion), manufacturing (16.3%, i.e. EUR 14.8 billion) and architectural and engineering activities (11.4%, i.e. EUR 10.0 billion).

The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP3 reached 18.7% in 20154, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (12.5%) (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 No breakdown available for construction of buildings and civil engineering.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

4 No data available after 2015.

Latvia

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Latvia totalled 25,266 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the real estate sub-sector accounting for 46.1% of the total and narrow construction for 37.8%. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 17.7% during the 2010-2016 period, led by architectural and engineering activities (+52.7%) and manufacturing (+46.2%).

Production in construction increased by 40.0% over 2010-2014, declining over the subsequent years but still being 20.9% higher than 2010 in 2016 (Figure 2). Namely, production in construction of buildings peaked in 2014, being 79.3% higher than in 2010, but subsequently declined, though being 64.5% above the 2010 level in 2016. Conversely, production in civil engineering dropped after 2013, being 11.6% lower than the 2010 level in 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 1.9 billion in 20162, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 37.8% of the total3 (EUR 704.5 million), followed by real estate activities, manufacturing and architectural and engineering activities (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 20.3% in 20144, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (11.7%) (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

4 No data available for subsequent years.

Lithuania

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Lithuania totalled 44,820 in 20161 (Figure 1). Specifically, 58.4% of these belonged to the narrow construction sector, 22.9% were dedicated to real estate activities, 9.6% to manufacturing and 9.1% to architectural and engineering activities. The overall number of enterprises in the broad construction sector grew substantially by 82.8% between 2010 and 2016. The number of companies in the narrow construction doubled with an increase rate of 114.6% between 2010 and 2016, yet companies in real estate followed the same trend but grew less substantially by 52.7%. The overall production in the construction sector increased by 29.0% between 2010 and 2016, followed by considerable growth of 71.0% in the production of buildings. Production in civil engineering works rose by 33.0% in 2014, reaching the highest point and dropped by 28.0% in 2016 compared to the 2014 levels (Figure 2).

In 20162, the total value added of the broad construction sector was EUR 2.4 billion (Figure 3), with the narrow construction sub-sector having the largest share (51.8.6%, i.e. EUR 1.2 billion). It was followed by real estate activities with a share of 26.2%, manufacturing with 14.8% and architectural and engineering activities with 7.3%. The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP3 reached 14.8% in 20144, slightly below the EU-28 average of 16.9% with narrow construction having the highest share (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

4 No data available for subsequent years.

Luxembourg

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Luxembourg totalled 8,044 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 45.8% of the total firms, and the real estate activities for 36.0%, which represents 3,686 and 2,896 enterprises, respectively. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 11.0% during the period 2010-2016. This increase was led by the growth of architectural and engineering activities (+15.8%), followed by construction (+14.5%) and real estate companies (+5.4%). On the other hand, the number of companies focused on manufacturing activities decreased by 5.6%, from 90 companies in 2010 to 85 companies in 2016.

Production in construction peaked in 2011 before dropping by 7.8% between 2011 and 2013. Since 2013, production recovered with a year-on-year improvement of 3.6% in 2014, yet being still below the pre-crisis level (Figure 2). Between 2014 and 2016, production continued to increase by 2.1%. The real estate sector was less affected by the crisis, contributing to the development of the construction sector2.

The total value added of the broad construction sector amounted EUR 3.9 billion in 20163, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 60.2% of the total4 (EUR 2.4 billion), followed by real estate activities (23.2% of the total), architectural and engineering activities (12.8%) and manufacturing (3.8%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 13.3% in 2014, with the real estate sub-sector having the largest contribution, followed by narrow construction, architectural and engineering activities, and last manufacturing, as presented in Figure 4 below. This is below the EU28 average standing at 16.9%.

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2Saisir les opportunités dans la construction au Grand-Duché : http://www.frontalierslorraine.eu/uploads/publications/2014-07-20_Construction-v4.pdf

3 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

4 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Malta

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Malta totalled 5,795 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector accounting for 61% of the total. Overall, the number of companies in the broad construction sector declined by 5.2% since 2011 (5,510).

Production in construction2 rose continuously between 2010 and 2015, peaking in 2015 due to the need to exhaust EU funds (+28.5%). It subsequently declined by 3.8% in 2016 as EU funded projects came to completion, though still being 23.6% higher than the 2010 level (Figure 2).

The total added value3 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 524.4 million in 20164, with the construction sub-sector accounting for 59.3% of the total (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 8.1%5 in 2016, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 This total only includes Construction and Real estate activities, since no data is available for Manufacturing and Architectural and engineering activities after 2010. This total cannot therefore be compared to the 2010 total, which also includes Manufacturing and Architectural and engineering activities.

2 The data breakdown for construction of buildings and civil engineering is not available.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

4 Please note that this total only includes Construction and Real estate activities, since no data is available for Manufacturing and Architectural and engineering activities.

5 This total only includes Construction and Real estate activities, since no data is available for Manufacturing and Architectural and engineering activities. It therefore cannot be compared to the EU28 average of 16.9%.

Netherlands

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in the Netherlands totalled 246,977 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 68.8% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 28.9% between 2010 and 2016, mostly driven by the 48.4% growth in architectural and engineering companies, followed by 33.1% in construction and 14.5% in manufacturing. According to Bouwend Nederland (Building Netherlands), this growth is mostly attributable to the increase in one-person companies following the crisis, which make up the majority of companies in the industry. The volume index of production in construction2 experienced an initial 12.1% drop between 2010 and 2013 due to the crisis, reaching a bottom low (Figure 2). However, it increased by 21.7% over 2013-2016 and overall increment of 7% is recorded over the period of 2010-2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 54.7 billion in 20163, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 49.0% of the total4 (EUR 26.8 billion), followed by 28.6% of real estate activities, 15.0% of architectural and engineering activities and 7.4% of manufacturing (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 11.4% in 20145, slightly below the EU-28 average of 16.9%, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 No data is available for the breakdown into production in construction of buildings and production in civil engineering.

3 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

4 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

5 No data available for subsequent years.

Poland

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Poland totalled 333,632 in 20161 (Figure 1), with the narrow construction accounting for 61.2% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector decreased by 2.4% during the period 2010-2016, mostly led by a 12.4% decrease in narrow construction. On the other hand, the number of companies in architectural and engineering and real estate activities went up by 16.2% and 14.3%, respectively. Production in construction fluctuated between 2010 and 2016, and overall dropped by 12.2% over 2010-2016 (Figure 2). On the contrary, the building segment substantially increased in 2011 and reached the highest point but shortly after it went downwards until 2016. Overall the segmented recorded an increase of 8.5% over 2010-2016. The civil engineering segment experienced the largest drop of 25.0% over the same period, having the lowest volume of production among all segments.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 23.5 billion in 20162, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 46.4% of the total3, followed by manufacturing, real estate activities, and architectural and engineering activities (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 14.1% in 2014, slightly below the EU-28 average of 16.9%, with narrow construction having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Portugal

In 20161, there were 147,149 enterprises in the broad construction sector in Portugal, with the construction sub-sector accounting for 51.3% of the total firms (Figure 1). The number of firms in the broad construction sector decreased by 18.9% since 2010 (181,379), although 2015 marked the end of the downward trend, recording a 0.6% increment compared to 2014. Narrow construction experienced the largest drop over 2010-2016 (-29.3%), while the real estate sub-sector increased its companies by 11.8%. Production in the construction of buildings has been dropping continuously between 2010 and 2016 (-45.0%), with the decline being exacerbated by the Portuguese sovereign debt crisis (Figure 2). Similarly, production in civil engineering fell by 50% over the same period, highlighting the fact that the Portuguese construction sector has still not recovered from the effects of the cuts in public spending and low levels of investment following the crisis.

The total added value2 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 9.5 billion in 20163, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 54.8% of the total (EUR 5.2 billion), followed by manufacturing, real estate and architectural and engineering activities (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 16.2% in 2014, in line with the EU28 average of 16.9%, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

Romania

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Romania totalled 89,943 in 20161 (Figure 1). Companies in the narrow construction sector accounted for 58.9% of the total, followed by architectural and engineering activities (16.9%), real estate activities (16.0%) and manufacturing (8.2%). The overall number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 7.6% between 2010 and 2016. After a drop in 2011 from 83,559 to 74,673 enterprises, this number increased continuously driven by the 16.8% growth in companies in architectural and engineering activities, the 7.3% growth in companies in the narrow construction sector and the 6.1% growth in companies in real estate activities. Production in construction increased by 1.8% over 2010-2016. Specifically, production in construction of buildings increased by 21.4%, while production in civil engineering experienced a 9.7% fall over the same period (Figure 2).

In 20162, the total value added of the broad construction sector was EUR 9.4 billion (Figure 3). The construction sub-sector had the largest share (54.4%, i.e. EUR 5.1 billion), followed by real estate activities (17.7%, i.e. EUR 1.7 billion), manufacturing (15.0%, i.e. EUR 1.4 billion) and architectural and engineering activities (12.9%, i.e. EUR 1.2 billion).

The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP3 reached 17.2% in 2014, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (8.1%) (Figure 4). This is in line with EU-28 average which stands at 16.9%.

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Slovenia

In 20161, there were 28,079 enterprises in the broad construction sector in Slovenia, with the construction sub-sector accounting for 58.7% of the total firms. Compared to 2010, the number of firms in the broad construction sector declined by 2.4%, with narrow construction reporting a 14.1% decrease. Conversely, architectural and engineering activities experienced a 25.7% increase, followed by real estate activities (+19%) (Figure 1). Production in construction of buildings dropped continuously between 2010 and 2013 (-60.3%), subsequently stabilising but still being 59.5% below the 2010 level in 2016 (Figure 2). Similarly, production in civil engineering decreased by 29.3% between 2010 and 2012, subsequently peaking in 2014 but then falling again and being 35.4% below the 2010 level in 2016.

The total added value2 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 2.4 billion in 20163, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 47.7% of the total (EUR 1.1 billion), followed by manufacturing, architectural and engineering activities and real estate (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 13.7% in 20144, compared to 16.9% in the EU28, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

4 No data available for subsequent years.

Slovakia

In 20161, there were 106,825 enterprises in the broad construction sector in Slovakia, with the construction sub-sector accounting for over 73% of the total firms (Figure 1). The number of firms in the broad construction sector decreased by 11.4% since 20102, with the manufacturing and construction sub-sectors experiencing the greatest drop ( 21% and -14.3%, respectively). Conversely, the number of enterprises in real estate increased by 22.5%. Production in the construction of buildings dropped by 23.4% between 2010 and 2014, reaching a record low (Figure 2). Although it showed signs of recovery in 2015, it declined again in 2016, being still 19.9% below the 2010 level. Production in civil engineering decreased by 26.8% over 2010-2012. After a subsequent stabilisation, it experienced a 53.5% increase in 2015 due to rapid consumption of EU funds (see Infrastructure). It plateaued in 2016, exceeding the 2010 level by 11.7%.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 3.5 billion in 20163, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 45.5% of the total4 (EUR 1.6 billion) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 14.7% in 20145, compared to 16.9% in the EU28, with the construction sub-sector having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that there is a structural break in the data between 2009 and 2010. Hence, data for 2010 onwards cannot be compared to data prior to 2010.

3 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

4 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

5 No data available for subsequent years.

Spain

The number of enterprises in the Spanish broad construction sector amounted to 653,117 in 20161 (Figure 1). Companies in the narrow construction sector accounted for 60.0% of the total number of enterprises, followed by real estate activities (21.1%), architectural and engineering activities (13.8%) and manufacturing (5.2%). Spain experienced a sharp drop in the number of construction enterprises between 2010 and 2013 (-12.4%), but steady recovery in the following years (+16.9%) led to the 2.4% of increase in 2016 compared with 2010 values. The biggest increase since 2013 has been reported in narrow construction (22.4%), followed by real estate activities (18.9%), whereas the number of companies in the manufacturing sub-sector, and architectural and engineering activities only increased by 0.1% and 1.1% respectively.

Production in construction has been following a similar declining trend in 2010-2012 with the following partial recovery until 2016. More specifically, 2016 values compared to 2010’s are 3.2% below for construction, with the production in construction of buildings practically at the same level (-0.1%). The volume of production in civil engineering remains the lowest, being 17.3% under 2010’s index of production in 2016 (Figure 2). Despite the upward trend registered since 2013, (+16,9% increase since 2013).

In 2016, the total value added2 of the broad construction sector amounted EUR 66.5 billion (Figure 3), with narrow construction having the largest share (53.6%). The total value added of the broad construction sector has been on decline until 2014 with a slow recovery till 2016, however still being 30,7% lower than in 2010. The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP3 decreased by 12,6% between 2010-20154, reaching in 2015 to 17.1%5, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (9.9%) (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

4 No data available for subsequent years.

5 No data available for subsequent years.

Sweden

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Sweden totalled 213,434 in 2016 (Figure 1). Companies in the narrow construction sector accounted for 49.8% of the total, followed by real estate activities (28.7%), architectural and engineering activities (18.8%) and manufacturing (2.7%). The overall number of enterprises in the broad construction sector experienced a 21.4% increase over 2010-2016, with growth in all sub-sectors at approximately 20%, with the exception of manufacturing, in which the number of companies declined by 7.5%. Production in construction and its subsectors was in decline between 2011 and 2013, but has been recovering since and in 2016 was 16.3% above its 2010 level. However, while production in the construction of building increased by 19.2% in that period, production in civil engineering remained below its 2010 value by 17.5%. (Figure 2).

In 20161, the total value added of the broad construction sector was EUR 2.4 billion (Figure 3), with the narrow construction sub-sector having the largest share (51.8.6%, i.e. EUR 1.2 billion). It was followed by real estate activities with a share of 26.2%, manufacturing with 14.8% and architectural and engineering activities with 7.3%. The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP2 reached 14.8% in 20143, slightly below the EU-28 average of 16.9% with narrow construction having the highest share (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 No data available for subsequent years.

United Kingdom

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in the United Kingdom totalled 449,775 in 20161 (Figure 1). The narrow construction sector accounted for 59.9% of the total, followed by architectural and engineering activities (19.1%), real estate activities (18.1%) and manufacturing (2.9%). The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 7.3% over 2010-2016, mainly driven by the 32.1% increase in the number of architectural and engineering companies. Despite dropping in 2012, production in construction has been increasing ever since, being 11.3% above the 2010 level in 2016. Namely, production in construction of buildings increased by 10.9% between 2010 and 2016, while production in civil engineering increased by 14.0% over the same period (Figure 2).

The total added value2 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 216.5 billion in 20163, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 53.2% of the total (EUR 115.2 billion), followed by real estate, architectural and engineering activities and manufacturing (Figure 3).

The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 18.9% in 2015, in line with the EU-28 average of 16.9%, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

1 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 Please note that this 2016 data is a nowcast - please refer to the methodology notes for further details.

Analytical reports

Analytical reports are documents providing the EU with a wide analysis of the socio-economic and environmental performance of the construction sector and recommendations for possible strategies to increase the sector's competitiveness.

Policy measure fact sheets

ECSO identifies and analyses specific policy measures that are being implemented in each EU country to stimulate construction sector employment, growth and opportunities. These are shown in the policy measure fact sheets, organised by thematic objective below.

 

Thematic objective 1

Belgium

Bulgaria

Croatia

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

Thematic objective 3

Austria

Belgium

Bulgaria

Croatia

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Italy

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

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Contact

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