Growth

European Construction Sector Observatory

European Construction Sector Observatory

The European Construction Sector Observatory (ECSO) is a 3-year (2015-2017) action under COSME. It aims to inform European policymakers and stakeholders on the market conditions and policy developments in the construction sector in the 28 EU countries, through regular analysis and comparative assessments.

The objectives of the Observatory are to:

  • monitor market conditions and trends, and national/regional strategies related to the five thematic priorities of Construction 2020
  • facilitate knowledge sharing and awareness on policy measures and initiatives that have an impact on the construction value chain.

Country fact sheets

ECSO profiles the construction industry in the 28 EU countries, and produces detailed Country Fact Sheets (CFS) for each country. Each CFS provides an analysis of key figures, macro-economic indicators, economic drivers, issues and barriers, innovation, the national/regional policy and regulatory framework, and the current status and national strategy to meet Construction 2020 objectives.

ECSO also identifies and analyses specific policy measures that are being implemented in each member state to stimulate construction sector employment, growth and opportunities. These are shown in the Policy Measure Fact Sheet (PFS).

To view and download ECSO findings, please click on a country on the map below. Countries with available data are marked in blue.

Austria

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Austria totalled 74,721 in 2013 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 44.9% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 17.6% between 2008 and 2013, mostly driven by the 36.9% growth in real estate activities, followed by construction (12.3%) and architectural and engineering activities (11.6%). Production in construction of buildings experienced an initial 3.6% drop between 2008 and 2010, followed by a 6.0% increment over 2010-2013. It then declined again in 2014, being 1.6% below the 2008 level. Similarly, production in civil engineering declined by 15.2% over 2008-2010, but has since been on the path to recovery. Nevertheless, it was 2.9% below the pre-crisis level in 2014 (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Austrian construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Austrian construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 31.6 billion in 2013, with the construction subsector contributing to 47.8% of the total1 (EUR 15.1 billion), followed by real estate activities (28.7%), manufacturing (12.5%) and architectural and engineering activities (11%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 17.0% in 2013, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Austrian construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Austrian construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Belgium

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Belgium totalled 164,690 in 2013 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 58.8% of the total firms, followed by real estate activities (23.4%). The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector has increased by 42.9% during the period 2008-2013, mainly led by the real estate sub-sector, which has doubled the number of companies. Production in construction of buildings dropped by 6.8% in 2008-2010, in the wake of the crisis, but subsequently recovered in 2011 (Figure 2). Nevertheless, it further slightly declined over 2011-2014, reaching 6.9% below the 2008 level in 2014. Conversely, production in civil engineering experienced a continuous increase between 2008 and 2012, growing by 10.5%. It subsequently experienced a 4.3% decline between 2012 and 2014, but was still 5.8% above the 2008.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Belgian construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Belgian construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total value added of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 27.3 billion in 2013, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 57.6% of the total1 (EUR 15.7 billion), followed by real estate activities (EUR 5.1 billion, i.e. 18.8% of the total), manufacturing (EUR 3.7 billion, i.e. 13.6% of the total) and architectural and engineering activities (EUR 2.7billion, 10.0%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 14.6% in 2014, with the real estate sub-sector having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Belgian construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Belgian construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Bulgaria

In 2013 1, there were 49,194 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Bulgaria, with the construction (NACE F) and the real estate sub-sector (NACE L) accounting for 38.1% and 39.4% of the total, respectively (Figure 1). The number of firms in the broad construction sector increased by 3.1% since 2008 (47,703), with the real estate sub-sector experiencing the largest growth (+26.5%). Conversely, the number of enterprises in construction decreased by 12.8% suffering from declining activity in the construction industry as well as liquidity shortage due to a severe banking crisis. In addition to the decrease in number of construction companies, many companies have ceased their activity and are considered 'dormant'. Production in construction of buildings dropped by 49.7% between 2008 and 2014, although there have been signs of stabilisation since 2013 (Figure 2). Production in civil engineering remained relatively stable between 2008 and 2010 (with a 6.2% increase in 2010), but then decreased by 20% in 2011. It has subsequently been on the road to recovery, nearly reaching the 2008 level. The civil engineering sector is strongly supported by EU co-financing. Indeed, availability and accessibility of EU funds are expected to contribute to the full recovery of the sector over the coming years.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Bulgarian construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Bulgarian construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector 2 amounted to EUR 2.2 billion in 2013 3, with the construction sub-sector accounting for 53.9% of the total (EUR 1.2 billion), followed by real estate activities (22.3%), manufacturing (13.8%) and architectural and engineering activities (10%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 14.6% in 2013 4, with the real estate sub-sector having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Bulgarian construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Bulgarian construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1 Data for 2014 is incomplete and not available for all sub-sectors.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 Data for 2014 is not available.

4 The total does not include the manufacturing sub-sector, since data for the share of Gross Value Added in GDP (%) is not available for the manufacturing sub-sector.

Croatia

In 2014, there were 31,048 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Croatia, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 59.1% of the total number of firms (Figure 1). Compared to 2008, the number of firms operating in the broad construction sector decreased by 22.4%, with the real estate sub-sector experiencing the greatest drop (-33.8%.), followed by construction (-26.0%) and manufacturing (-18.1%). Conversely, the number of enterprises in architectural and engineering activities increased by 5.9% during the same period. Production in construction dropped significantly between 2008 and 2014, as reflected in Figure 2. In general terms, the volume index of production in construction fell by 46.7% since 2008. This decline was led by the construction buildings, which decreased by 53.4%, whereas production of civil engineering decreased by 39.4%.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Croatian construction sector between 2008-2014

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Croatian construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value1 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 2.8 billion in 2013 with the construction sub-sector accounting for 55.5% of the total (EUR 1.5 billion), followed by manufacturing (16.8%), real estate activities (13.9%) and architectural and engineering activities (13.7%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in GDP reached 15.6% in 2013, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Croatian construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Croatian construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Cyprus

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Cyprus totalled 11,009 in 2014 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 65.4% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 20.3% between 2008 and 2014. Company growth has been positive in all sub-sectors, but was particularly pronounced for the real estate sub-sector (+10.5%) and the construction sub-sector (+11.7%). In contrast, production in construction dropped continuously since the beginning of the crisis in 2008, experiencing a 65.2% decline over 2008-2014 (Figure 2). In particular, production in the construction of buildings went down by 70.5% compared to 2008 levels.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Cypriot construction sector between 2008-20141

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Cypriot construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 722.6 million in 2014 with the construction sub-sector contributing to 68.4% of the total2 (EUR 494.4 million), followed by manufacturing (16.2% of the total), real estate activities (7.4%), and architectural and engineering activities (7.0%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 13.8% in 2014, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Cypriot construction sector in 2014 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Cypriot construction sector in 2014 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1Break in data for the manufacturing sector over 2009 to 2010.
2Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Czech Republic

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector of the Czech Republic totalled 281,565 in 2014 (Figure 1). Specifically, 60.7% of these enterprises belonged to the narrow construction sector, 16.6% of enterprises were dedicated to real estate activities, 11.6% to architectural and engineering activities and 11.1% to manufacturing. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 2.5% between 2009 and 2014. This growth was achieved by an increase of manufacturing enterprises by 2.0%, of narrow construction enterprises by 4.7% and of real estate enterprises by 1.6% in the same period. Only the number of architectural and engineering enterprises dropped (-6.5%) between 2009 and 2014.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Czech construction sector between 2009-2014

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Czech construction sector over 2009-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The overall production in the construction sector increased strongly from 2004 to 2009 (+18.8%). This was followed by a rapid decline (-19.9%) between 2009 and 2014 (Figure 2). The drop was composed of a 16.1% decrease in the production of buildings and a 27.2% decrease in civil engineering production. However, in 2013 an upward movement of 4.3% in overall construction production was experienced, signalling the recovery of the market.

Figure 3: Value added in the Czech construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Czech construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

In 2013, the total value added in the Czech Republic's broad construction sector was EUR 11,558 million (Figure 3). The narrow construction sub-sector had the largest share with 47.8% of the total value added (EUR 5.5 billion). It was followed by real estate activities with a share of 25.1% (EUR 2.9 billion), manufacturing with 15.7% (EUR 1.8 billion) and architectural and engineering activities with 11.4% (EUR 1.3 billion). In terms of gross value added as a share of GDP1, architectural and engineering activities took on the highest share (7.9%) in 2013, closely followed by manufacturing with 5.2% (Figure 4). For both narrow construction and real estate activities this figure is comparably low.

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Denmark

In 2013 1, there were 65,414 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Denmark, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 46.9% of the total firms (Figure 1). Compared to 2008, the number of firms operating in the broad construction sector decreased by 2.5%, with the construction sub-sector experiencing the greatest drop (-14.8%), followed by manufacturing (-7.7%). Conversely, the number of enterprises in real estate increased by 16%. Production in the construction of buildings dropped by 19.7% between 2008 and 2010 (Figure 2). Subsequently, it started on a path to recovery until 2014, but was still 13% below the 2008 level. Similarly, production in civil engineering decreased by 10.1% between 2008 and 2010. However, it experienced a full recovery by 2014, being 19.1% above the 2008 level, due to the increase in public investment in transport infrastructure (see TO 1 - Investment conditions and volumes).

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Danish construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Danish construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value 2 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 22.3 billion in 2012 3, with the construction sub-sector accounting for 40% of the total (i.e. EUR 8.9 billion), followed by real estate activities (39%), architectural and engineering activities (14%) and manufacturing (7%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 14.7% in 2012, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Danish construction sector in 2012 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Danish construction sector in 2012 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1 Data for 2014 is incomplete and not available for all sub-sectors.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 Data for 2013 not available.

Estonia

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Estonia totalled 17,158 in 2013 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 51.7% of the total firms, and the real estate activities for 29.9%. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 13.0% during the period 2008-2013. This increase was led by architectural and engineering activities (+27.6%) and real estate companies (+22.1%), followed by manufacturing (+7.4%) and construction (+6.6%). Conversely, production in construction collapsed in 2010 dropping by 45.2% over 2008-2010. Production in construction of buildings suffered the most decreasing by 71.4% over the same period, while production in civil engineering went down 31.3%. Nevertheless, a strong recovery initiated over the course of 2010-2014, with production being again close to pre-crisis levels (Figure 2). Indeed, in 2014 production in construction lay 6.9% below 2008 levels.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Estonian construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Estonian construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 2.0 billion in 2013, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 45.9% of the total1(EUR 916 million), followed by real estate activities (27.8% of the total), manufacturing (21.4%), and architectural and engineering activities (13.6%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 17.6% in 2013, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (8.5%) (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Estonian construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Estonian construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Finland

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Finland totalled 77,950 in 2013 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 55% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 10.6% between 2008 and 2013, mostly driven by the 46.5% growth in real estate companies. Conversely, the number of companies in the construction and architectural and engineering sub-sectors remained stable, whereas the manufacturing sub-sectors experienced a 13.5% decline. Production in construction of buildings dropped by 13.7% in 2008-2009, in the wake of the crisis, but subsequently started recovering, increasing by 26.5% between 2009 and 2011 (Figure 2). It then stabilised over the following years, being 3.8% above 2008 levels in 2014. Production in civil engineering experienced a continuous decline between 2008 and 2011, dropping by 16.9%. It has been on the road to recovery since 2012, but was still 12.1% below the 2008 value by 2014.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Finnish construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Finnish construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 17.2 billion in 2013, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 54% of the total1 (EUR 9.3 billion), followed by real estate activities (EUR 3.9 billion, i.e. 23% of the total), architectural and engineering activities (EUR 2.2 billion, i.e. 13%) and manufacturing (EUR 1.7 billion, i.e. 10%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 18.3% in 2013, with the manufacturing sub-sector having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Finnish construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Finnish construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

France

In 2013, there were 853,440 companies operating in the broad construction1 sector in France, a 2% increase from the previous year. In the narrow construction sector, this increase was more pronounced, amounting to 4.6% (i.e. an additional 23,624 companies). The same year, narrow construction contributed to 55% of the value added2 of the sector (Figure 1). At the same time, the gross value added of the broad construction sector contributed to 18.8% of the GDP in 2013, with the real estate sub-sector accounting for the largest share (11.5%) (Table 1).

Table 1: Number of enterprises in the construction sector in France in 2013

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP(%)
Manufacturing19,0050.5%
Construction536,4885.3%
Real estate activities217,67811.5%
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy80,2691.5%
Total853,44018.8%

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Figure 1: Value added in the construction sector in France in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Production in civil engineering showed the highest sensitivity to economic changes and has been severely hit by the crisis, dropping by 48% between 2008 and 2012 (Figure 2). It subsequently picked up, increasing by 15% until 2014, but is still 40% below the 2008 level. On the other hand, despite an initial 11% decline between 2008 and 2009, production in construction of buildings displayed a slowly recovering trend until 2013, but then turned negative again. According to Eurostat, from December 2014 to December 2015, France was among the Member States in which the largest decreases in production in construction of buildings was recorded (-3.6%).

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the construction sector in France over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

1 Please refer to the Annex for more details on the definition of the construction sector.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in value added for the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of Gross Value Added in GDP, as GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Germany

In 2013, there were 618,177 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Germany, with the narrow construction sector (NACE F) accounting for 44.8% (Table 1). The number of companies in the broad construction sector has increased by 14.3% since 2008 (540,945), with the most significant increase in the narrow construction sector (+17.1%). The construction sub-sector (NACE F) contributed to 42% of the total added value of the sector in 2012, in line with its share in the number of companies (Table 1). On the other hand, the manufacturing sub-sector has a higher value added per firm, suggesting a higher efficiency and lower cost base.

The value added of real estate activities had the largest share in the GDP (10.1%), contrary to its share in the value added of the broad construction sector. Similar differences are reported for narrow construction and architectural and engineering activities 1.

Table 1: Number of enterprises in the construction sector in Germany in 2013

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP(%)
Manufacturing28,0240.9%
Construction277,1414.0%
Real estate activities205,32310.1%
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy107,6891.3%
Total618,17716.3%

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Figure 1: Value added in the construction sector in Germany in 2012 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Despite a relatively stable initial phase between 2008 and 2010, production levels first peaked in 2011 across all sub-sectors (+10.8% for civil engineering, +7.2% for construction of buildings). Production then fell in 2012, but subsequently picked up in 2013 for civil engineering and in 2014 for construction of buildings. Overall, since 2010, production in civil engineering and construction of buildings increased by 18% and 7.5%, respectively.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the construction sector in Germany over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Greece

In 2013 1, there were 145,760 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Greece, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 58.1% of the total firms (Figure 1). Compared to 2008, the number of firms operating in the broad construction sector decreased by 32.4%, with the manufacturing sub-sector experiencing the greatest drop (-40.9%), followed by construction (-38.2%) and architectural/engineering (-18.1%). Only real estate activities reported a slighter loss, with its companies declining by 3.9% since 2008. Production in the construction of buildings dropped by 85.8% between 2008 and 2014, although it showed signs of stabilisation in 2014 (Figure 2). This collapse goes in parallel with the drop in demand and the housing market crash following the crisis (see Access to housing). Similarly, production in civil engineering suffered from severe budget cuts and fall in infrastructure investments (see TO 1 - Investment conditions and volumes), thus decreasing by 72.9% between 2008 and 2012. It subsequently started to recover, increasing by 32.2% in 2012-2014. However, it still far from full recovery, being 64.2% below the 2008 level.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Greek construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Greek construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value 1 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 6.5 billion in 2013, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 67% of this total (i.e. EUR 4.3 billion), followed by manufacturing (14%), architectural and engineering activities (13%), and real estate (6%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 20.6% in 2013, with the manufacturing sub-sector having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Greek construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Greek construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Hungary

In 2012, there were 119,417 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Hungary, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for about half of the total firms (Table 1). Compared to 2008, the number of firms operating in the broad construction sector decreased by 11.4%, with the construction sub-sector experiencing the greatest drop (-18.7%). Conversely, the number of enterprises in real estate and architectural activities remained relatively stable. The construction sub-sector contributed to 43% of the total added value1 of the broad construction sector in 2012, slightly less than its share in the number of companies (Figure 1). In contrast, the manufacturing and real estate sub-sectors add more value than expected from their share in the number of enterprises, indicating a higher efficiency and lower cost base.

The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 11.9% in 2012, with real estate activities having the largest contribution, despite their lower share in the value added of the broad construction sector.

Table 1: Number of enterprises in the construction sector in Hungary in 2012

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP(%)
Manufacturing6,7740.7%
Construction60,2843.3%
Real estate activities31,3387.1%
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy21,0210.8%
Total119,41711.9%

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Figure 1: Value added in the construction sector in Hungary in 2012 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Production in the construction of buildings dropped by 33.1% between 2008 and 2012, reaching a record low (Figure 2). It then started to recover until 2014, but was still 23.6% below the 2008 level. Production in civil engineering decreased by 17.9% between 2008 and 2012, after which it experienced a full recovery by 2014, being 8.5% above the 2008 level.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the construction sector in Hungary over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Ireland

In 2012, there were 42,915 companies operating in the broad construction sector in Ireland, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for the majority of them. This represents a 29.7% decrease since 2008 (61,085). This drop was even more pronounced in the construction sub-sector, at 40.5%. In 2012, the construction sub-sector accounted for 65.3% to the total added value of the sector. This is in line with the share of this sub-sector in the total number of companies (Table 1).

The gross value added of the broad construction sector contributed to 9.48% of the GDP in 2012, with the majority of it provided by real estate activities (Table 1). However, real estate activities account for only 14.8% of the value added in the broad construction sector (Figure 1). This difference between the share of gross value added in the GDP and the share of value added in the broad construction sector could be explained by the taxes and subsidies applied unevenly for different sub-sectors.

Table 1: Number of enterprises in the construction sector in Ireland in 2012

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP(%)
Manufacturing6910.2%
Construction28,0802.2%
Real estate activities8,3135.9%
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy5,5551.2%
Total42,6399.5%

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Figure 1: Value added in the construction sector in Ireland in 2012 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Following the 2008-2009 crisis, production in construction of buildings dropped drastically, hitting rock bottom in 2012 (-71.3). It then started to recover but was still 63.2% below the 2008 level (Figure 2).

Production in civil engineering fell by 48% between 2008 and 2011, subsequently picking up until 2014, but remaining 35% lower than 2008. From 2011, the European Investment Bank's investment doubled and has continued to grow to EUR 932 million in 2014, further supplementing the capital investment programme of the Irish government. This has helped to stabilise and stimulate construction production from a very low starting point.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the construction sector in Ireland over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

1 Please refer to the Annex for more details on the definition of the construction sector.

2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

3 European Investment Bank, The EIB in Ireland

4 Department of Public Expenditure and Reform, Building on Recovery

Italy

In 2012, there were 1,043,039 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Italy, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for the majority of them (Table 1). This represents an 8.5% decrease since 2008 (1,140,136), as a result of the crisis. The construction sub-sector was the most affected, with a 15.5% drop in the number of firms since 2008 (634,988).

The construction sub-sector contributed to 55% of the total added value 1 of the sector in 2012, in line with its share in the number of companies (Figure 1). On the other hand, the manufacturing sub-sector adds twice as much value as it would be expected from its share in the number of companies.

Table 1: Number of enterprises in the construction sector in Italy in 2013

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP(%)
Manufacturing72,6041.02
Construction536,2964.80
Real estate activities230,16512.50
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy203,9741.59
Total1,043,03919.9%

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Figure 1: Value added in the construction sector in Italy in 2012

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Production levels in the construction sector 2 have been declining drastically between 2008 and 2014, as a consequence of the crisis, dropping by 41.5% (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the construction sector in Italy over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

2 Data for the other sub-sectors was not available.

Latvia

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Latvia totalled 25,202 in 2014 (Figure 1), with the real estate sub-sector accounting for 48.0% of the total firms, and narrow construction for 37.4%. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 14.6% during the period 2008-2014. This increase was led by architectural and engineering activities (+56.0%) and manufacturing companies (+37.5%), followed by construction (+24.0%) and real estate (+1.8%). Conversely, production in construction declined considerably over the same time period, dropping at first by 50.3% over 2008-2010. The building segment suffered the most, decreasing by 61.8% over the same period, while civil engineering went down by 36.6%. While production recovered to some extent after 2010, it still lies 31.5% and 25.9% below 2008 levels for buildings and civil engineering, respectively (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Latvian construction sector between 2008-2014

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Latvian construction sector over 2008-2015 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 2.0 billion in 2014, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 43.0% of the total1 (EUR 867 million), followed by real estate activities (33.3% of the total), manufacturing (19.4%), and architectural and engineering activities (4.0%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 19.7% in 2014, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (11.0%) (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Latvian construction sector in 2014 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Latvian construction sector in 2014 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Lithuania

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Lithuania totalled 38,226 in 2013 (Figure 1). Specifically, 59.5% of these belonged to the narrow construction sector, 22.8% were dedicated to real estate activities, 9.7% to manufacturing and 8.1% to architectural and engineering activities. However, the overall number of enterprises in the broad construction sector decreased by 17.6% between 2008 and 2013 as a result of the crisis. The number of companies in the narrow construction recovered completely (+1.4% over 2008-2013), yet companies in real estate did not follow the same trend, remaining 47.2% below 2008 levels in 2013. The overall production in the construction sector decreased importantly in 2009 (-48.3%) and 2010 (-7.7%). The drop was composed of a 64.9% decrease in the production of buildings and a 32.8% decrease in civil engineering production between 2008 and 2010 (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Lithuanian construction sector between 2008-20131

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Lithuanian construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

In 2013, the total value added of the broad construction sector was EUR 1.9 billion (Figure 3), with the narrow construction sub-sector having the largest share (56.6%, i.e. EUR 1.1 billion). It was followed by real estate activities with a share of 22.5% (EUR 432 million), manufacturing with 14.7% (EUR 282 million) and architectural and engineering activities with 6.2% (EUR 119 million). In terms of gross value added as a share of GDP2, narrow construction took the highest share (5.9%) in 2013, closely followed by real estate activities (5.7%) (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Lithuanian construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Lithuanian construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1Data for 2014 is not available
2Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Luxembourg

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Luxembourg totalled 7,880 in 2013 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 44.6% of the total firms, and the real estate activities for 38.4%. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 15.8% during the period 2008-2013. This increase was led by increase of real estate companies (+16.6%), followed by construction (+16.2%) and architectural and engineering activities (+15.3%). On the other hand, the number of companies focused on manufacturing activities decreased by 11.8%, from 93 companies in 2008 to 82 companies in 2013. Production in construction peaked in 2011 before dropping by 8.0% between 2011 and 2013. Since 2013, production recovered growing by 3.7% in 2014, yet being still below the pre-crisis level (Figure 2). The real estate sector was less affected by the crisis, contributing to the development of the construction sector1.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Luxembourg construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Luxembourg construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total value added of the broad construction sector amounted EUR 3.4 billion in 2013, with the construction subsector contributing to 60.7% of the total2 (EUR 2 billion), followed by real estate activities (23.5% of the total), architectural and engineering activities (11.6%) and manufacturing (4.2%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 13.1% in 2013, with the real estate sub-sector having the largest contribution, followed by narrow construction, architectural and engineering activities, and last manufacturing, as presented in Figure 4 below.

Figure 3: Value added in the Luxembourg construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Luxembourg construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1Saisir les opportunités dans la construction au Grand-Duché: http://www.frontalierslorraine.eu/uploads/publications/2014-07-20_Construction-v4.pdf
2Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Malta

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in Malta totalled 6,710 in 20101 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 60.1% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 24.0% between 2008 and 2010, mostly driven by the 42.5% growth in real estate activities. Nevertheless, the number of construction and real estate companies experienced a decline after 2010, reaching 3,623 and 1,408 in 2013, respectively, which was however 15.4% and 13.5% above the 2008 level. Production in construction2 experienced a continuously increasing trend since 2008, seemingly unaffected by the crisis, and grew by 16.6% between 2008 and 2014 (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Maltese construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Maltese construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 346 million in 20093, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 61.8% of the total4(EUR 213.7 million), followed by real estate activities (17.8%), architectural and engineering activities (11.4%) and manufacturing (9%) (Figure 3). The value added of the construction and real estate sub-sectors subsequently experienced a 26.2% and a 171.4% increase over 2009-2013, reaching EUR 269.7 million and EUR 167.2 million in 2013, respectively. The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 10.1%5 in 20106, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Maltese construction sector in 2009 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Maltese construction sector in 2010 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1No data available for Manufacturing and Architectural and engineering activities after 2010, therefore the complete total for the broad construction sector is only available up to 2010.
2The data breakdown for construction of buildings and civil engineering is not available.
3Data for all other years is incomplete and/or unavailable.
4Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.
5The total does not include manufacturing, since no data is available for this sub-sector.
6Data for other years is incomplete.

Netherlands

The number of enterprises in the broad construction sector in the Netherlands totalled 224,729 in 2013 (Figure 1), with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 67.9% of the total firms. Overall, the number of enterprises in the broad construction sector increased by 56.1% between 2008 and 2013, mostly driven by the 95.9% growth in architectural and engineering companies, followed by construction (+52.6%) and real estate (+40.6%). According to Bouwend Nederland (Building Netherlands), this growth is mostly attributable to the increase in one-person companies following the crisis, which make up the majority of companies in the industry. The volume index of production in construction1 experienced an initial 14.8% drop between 2008 and 2010 due to the crisis, followed by stabilisation in 2011. (Figure 2). However, it further declined by 12.5% over 2011-2013, reaching a bottom low. The situation showed some signs of recovery in 2014, although the index of production was still 22.4% below 2008 levels.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Dutch construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Dutch construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 49.6 billion in 2013, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 48.4% of the total2 (EUR 24 billion), followed by real estate activities (30.6% of the total), architectural and engineering activities (13.6%) and manufacturing (7.4%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 10.9% in 2013, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Dutch construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Dutch construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1 No data is available for the breakdown into production in construction of buildings and production in civil engineering.
2 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Poland

In 2013, there were 341,670 companies operating in the broader construction sector in Poland, a 3.4% decrease with respect to the year before. However, in the construction sub-sector (NACE F) this drop was more pronounced, at 4.3%, evidencing difficulties in the sector as a result of the crisis.

The same year, the construction sub-sector contributed to only 54.0% of the total added value of the sector. Compared to its share in the number of companies, this suggests that this sub-sector has a comparatively low added value (Table 1).

Table 1: Number of enterprises in the construction sector in Poland in 2013

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP(%)
Manufacturing24,4651.4%
Construction223,7966.8%
Real estate activities41,1524.6%
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy52,2571.2%
Total341,67014.0%

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Figure 1: Value added in the construction sector in Poland in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Construction of buildings dropped drastically (by 18%) in 2008/2009 following the crisis, and after further fluctuation was set on the path to recovery by 2014 (Figure 2). On the other hand, production in the civil engineering sub-sector has been generally on the increase between 2008 and 2014.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in construction sector in Poland over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

1 Please refer to the Annex for more details on the definition of the construction sector.

Portugal

In 2013 1, there were 146,664 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Portugal, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 55.5% of the total firms (Figure 1). The number of firms in the broad construction sector decreased by 19.1% since 2010 2 (181,379). Similarly, the manufacturing, construction and architectural/engineering sub-sectors experienced significant drops since 2010 (-13.2%, -23.8% and -21.5%, respectively). Conversely, the real estate sub-sector declined less markedly (-2.5%). Production in the construction sector has seen a major decrease since the start of the crisis in 2008 (Figure 2). Construction of buildings and production in civil engineering have been constantly declining since the mid-2000s, yet the decline was exacerbated by the Portuguese sovereign debt crisis with production falling by over 10% for four consecutive years since 2010. The sharp fall of the construction sector reflected the overall deteriorating economic climate in the wake of the crisis, characterised by cuts in public spending, low levels of investment as well as tight credit conditions. Indeed, over 2008-2014, both production in the construction of buildings and civil engineering dropped by over 50% (-56.6% and -52.5%, respectively).

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Portuguese construction sector between 2010-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Portuguese construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The added value 3 of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 9 billion in 2013, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 59% of the total (EUR 5.3 billion), followed by manufacturing (18%), real estate (14%) and architectural and engineering activities (9%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 16.6% in 2013, with real estate activities having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Portuguese construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Portuguese construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1 Data for 2014 not available.

2 Data for previous years is incomplete.

3 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Romania

In 2012, there were 76,783 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Romania, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 58.1% (Table 1). This represents a 21.7% decrease since 2008 (98,065 companies), as a result of the crisis. Most of the decline was observed in the manufacturing (-30%) and the construction sub-sectors (-24.9%).

The construction sub-sector contributed to 56% of the total added value1 of the sector in 2012, in line with its share in the number of companies (Figure 1). On the other hand, the manufacturing sub-sector adds twice as much value as it would be expected from its share in the number of companies, suggesting a higher efficiency and lower cost base. However, its value added accounts for less than 10% of the total share of the value added of the construction sector in the GDP, contrary to its share in the value added of the broad construction sector. Similar differences are reported for real estate and architectural/engineering activities, mainly due to specific tax and subsidies regimes applied to these sub-sectors.

Table 1: Number of enterprises in the construction sector in Romania in 2012

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP(%)
Manufacturing7,0141.8%
Construction44,6078.5%
Real estate activities12,7378%
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy12,4250.9%
Total76,78319.2%

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Figure 1: Value added in the construction sector in Romania in 2012 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Production in construction of buildings dropped by 38% between 2008 and 2010, subsequently stabilising and then reaching its lowest in 2013 (Figure 2). It increased by 21.5% between 2013 and 2014, but is still 27.4% below the 2008 level. Similarly, production in civil engineering declined by 14.3% between 2008 and 2010, but then started recovering until 2013. However, it dropped again by 22.1% in 2014, falling 27.8% below the 2008 level.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the construction sector in Romania over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Slovenia

In 2013, there were 28,994 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Slovenia, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 62.3% of the total firms. Compared to 2008, the number of firms operating in the broad construction sector increased by 1.5%, with the architectural and engineering sub-sector experiencing the greatest increase (25.8%), followed by real estate activities (17.0%) and manufacturing (7.8%) (Figure 1). Conversely, the number of enterprises in the construction sub-sector decreased by 7.0%. Production in the construction of buildings dropped continuously between 2008 and 2013 (-73.5%), showing however some signs of recovery in 2014, increasing by 3.8% (Figure 2). Nevertheless, it was still 72.5% below the 2008 levels. Similarly, production in civil engineering decreased by 54.1% between 2008 and 2012. However, it has started to recover more markedly than production in construction of buildings, increasing by 34.5% over 2012-2014, but being still 38.3% lower than 2008.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Slovenian construction sector between 2008-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Slovenian construction sector over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The construction sub-sector contributed to 52% (EUR 1.2 billion) of the total added value1 of the broad construction sector in 2013 (EUR 2.2 billion), followed by manufacturing (EUR 442.5 million), architectural and engineering activities (EUR 360.4 million) and real estate activities (EUR 249.6 million) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 13.8% in 2013, with the construction sub-sector having the largest contribution. (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Slovenian construction sector in 2013 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Slovenian construction sector in 2013 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Slovakia

In 2013 1, there were 110,084 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Slovakia, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for over 74% of the total firms (Figure 1). The number of firms in the broad construction sector decreased by 8.7% since 2010 2 (120,561), with the manufacturing and construction sub-sectors experiencing the greatest drop (-18.2% and -10.4%, respectively). Conversely, the number of enterprises in real estate increased by 15.5%. Production in the construction of buildings dropped by 37.6% between 2008 and 2014, reaching a record low (Figure 2). Although it showed signs of recovery in 2015, it was still 33.9% below the 2008 level. Production in civil engineering remained relatively stable between 2008 and 2011, but then decreased by 25.5% in 2012. After a subsequent stabilisation, it experienced a 53.5% increase in 2015 due to rapid consumption of EU funds (see Infrastructure), exceeding the 2008 level by 13.5%.

Figure 1: Number of enterprises in the Slovak construction sector between 2010-2013

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the Slovak construction sector over 2008-2015 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

The total added value of the broad construction sector amounted to EUR 4.2 billion in 2012 3, with the construction sub-sector contributing to 58% of the total 4 (EUR 2.5 billion), followed by real estate activities (EUR 854.9 million, i.e. 20% of the total), manufacturing (EUR 530.6 million, i.e. 13%) and architectural and engineering activities (EUR 384.5 million, i.e. 9%) (Figure 3). The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 16.3% in 2012, with the construction sub-sector having the largest contribution (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Value added in the Slovak construction sector in 2012 (EUR m)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

Figure 4: Gross value added as a share of GDP in the Slovak construction sector in 2012 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2016.

1 Data for 2014 is incomplete and not available for all sub-sectors.

2 Please note that there is a structural break in the data between 2009 and 2010. Hence, data for 2010 onwards cannot be compared to data prior to 2010.

3 Data for 2013 is not available.

4 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Spain

In 2012, there were 567,347 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Spain, with the narrow construction sector (NACE F) accounting for 56.6% of them (Table 1). This represents a 19% decrease in the broad construction sector since 2008 (699,848 companies). Most of the decline was reported in the construction (-24%) and manufacturing sub-sectors (-21%). The construction sub-sector (NACE F) contributed 59% to the total added value1 of the sector in 2012, in line with its share in the number of companies (Table 1). On the other hand, the manufacturing sub-sector adds twice as much value as it would be expected from its share in the number of companies, suggesting a higher efficiency and lower cost base.

The share of gross value added of the broad construction sector in the GDP reached 18.2% in 2012, with real estate activities having the largest contribution to the GDP, despite their lower share in the value added of the broad construction sector.

Table 1: Number of enterprises in the construction sector in in Spain in 2012

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP(%)
Manufacturing36,2540.9%
Construction320,8725.8%
Real estate activities117,46410.6%
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy92,7570.9%
Total567,34718.2%

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Figure 1: Value added in the construction sector in Spain in 2012 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Production in the construction of buildings dropped by 46.3% from 2008 until 2012, subsequently picking up by 23% until 2014, but is still 34% below the pre-crisis level. Similarly, production in civil engineering decreased by 48% between 2008 and 2013, after which it started to recover slightly, but was still 46% below the 2008 level in 2014.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the construction sector in Spain over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in value added for the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of Gross Value Added in GDP, as GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

Sweden

In 2012, there were 193,009 enterprises operating in the broad construction sector in Sweden, with the construction sub-sector (NACE F) accounting for 48.5% (Table 1). This represents an 18.7% increase since 2008 (162,628 companies), despite the crisis, with most of the growth observed in real estate activities (+25.5%), construction (+19.6%) and architectural/engineering activities (+11.4%). The number of companies in the construction-related manufacturing sub-sector has dropped by 6% since 2008 and is expected to continue decreasing.

The construction sub-sector contributed to 43% of the total added value of the sector in 2012, in line with its share in the number of companies (Figure 1). On the other hand, the manufacturing sub-sector adds twice as much value as it would be expected from its share in the number of companies, which suggests a higher efficiency and lower cost base.

Table 1: Number of enterprises in the construction sector in Sweden in 2012

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP(%)
Manufacturing5,9670.8%
Construction93,5984.9%
Real estate activities58,1937.5%
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy35,2511.6%
Total193,00914.8%

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Figure 1: Value added in the construction sector in Sweden in 2012 (%)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Production in construction of buildings dropped by 10.7% between 2008 and 2009, but fully recovered by 2014, exceeding its pre-crisis levels by 8.5%. Conversely, production in civil engineering was severely affected by the economic downturn, dropping by 48.3% between 2008 and 2012. The sector has been on the road to recovery since 2013, but was still 40.5% below its pre-crisis level in 2014.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in the construction sector in Sweden over 2008-2014 (2010=100)

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

1 Please note that the share of each sub-sector in the value added of the broad construction sector should not be compared to the shares of the Gross Value Added in the GDP, since the GDP also includes taxes and excludes subsidies.

United Kingdom

Overall, there were almost 420,000 companies operating in the construction sector in the United Kingdom in 2012, defined as: manufacturing (NACE C), construction (NACE F), real estate (NACE L) and architectural/engineering companies and related technical consultancy (NACE M). Construction companies accounted for the majority of businesses in the sector (Table 1). SMEs constitute the vast majority, with micro-companies (between 0 and 9 employees) accounting for 77% of all companies in the sector in 2012 ( 323,436 companies out of the total 419,611 ). Construction companies (NACE F) add slightly less value than it would be expected from their share in the total number of enterprises (Figure 1). On the other hand, manufacturing contributes nearly double the added value than their share in the number of companies would suggest.

Table 1: Number of the enterprises in the construction sector in the UK in 2012

IndustryNumber of enterprisesShare of Gross Value Added in GDP
Manufacturing12,9660.5%
Construction257,1925.4%
Real estate activities79,21310.1%
Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy70,2402.3%
Total419,61118.3%

Source: Eurostat, London Economics, PwC 2015

Figure 1: Value added at sector cost per company sub-sector in the UK in 2012

Eurostat, London Economics, PwC 2015.

The construction of buildings dropped drastically in 2008/2009, following the crisis, and after further fluctuation was set on the path to recovery by 2014. Construction of civil engineering works was the most sensible to the crisis construction sub-sector, showing significant volatility in 2008-2014. Conversely, after initial recovery in 2008, production in the civil engineering sub-sector dropped considerably between 2011/2012.

Figure 2: Volume index of production in construction sector in the UK over 2008-2014

Source: Eurostat, 2015.

Full content on all of the 28 EU countries will be available in late 2016/early 2017.

Policy Measures Database

The database contains a list of policy measures that are being implemented in each member state to stimulate construction sector employment, growth and opportunities.

Full content on all EU countries will be available in late 2016/early 2017.

Analytical report

Analytical reports are documents providing the EU with a wide analysis of the socio-economic and environmental performance of the construction sector and recommendations for possible strategies to increase the sector's competitiveness.

Contact

grow-construction@ec.europa.eu

Share

Share