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Reports and studies

Coexistence with conventional & organic agriculture

European Food Safety Authority

Commission's Joint Research Centre and the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies

Post-market environmental monitoring

Economic performance of GM crops worldwide 2011

Management of field trials

The study looks at the how field trials of genetically modified crops are managed in the EU from October 2002 to March 2008 under Directive 2001/18/EC (Part B) on the deliberate release of GMOs into the environment.

Part B covers issuing of consent for deliberate release of GMOs for purposes other than marketing e.g. research and development.

Which crops does it cover?

The study covers trials of genetically modified:

  • Maize;
  • Oilseed rape;
  • Potato;
  • Sugar beet
  • Cotton.

Which EU countries did it cover?

The study gathered basic information from all EU countries and more details from:

  • France ;
  • Germany ;
  • Hungary ;
  • Spain ;
  • Sweden ;
  • The Netherlands;
  • United Kingdom .

Final reportpdf(2 MB) Choose translations of the previous link 

Appendix 1excel8book(545 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 2pdf(47 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 3pdf(261 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 4pdf(70 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 5pdf(32 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 6excel8book(151 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 7pdf(370 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 8pdf(101 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 9pdf(65 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 10pdf(85 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 11pdf(402 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Appendix 12pdf(28 kB) Choose translations of the previous link 

Long-term effects of GMOs cultivation

This 2009 study addressed potential long-term (10-20 years) effects on health and the environment (including biodiversity) of genetically modified plants through their marketing and cultivation in the EU.

Which crops did the study cover?

Focus was on the 4 genetically modified crops most relevant to the EU:

  • Insect-resistant maize - Bt maize;
  • Herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape and sugar beet;
  • Starch-modified potato.

What did the study analyse?

The study covers:

  • Likelihood of occurrence of effects;
  • Identifies uncertainties and ways of minimising them e.g. modelling and improving monitoring methodology;
  • Actions to increase knowledge e.g. research areas.

It used literature reviews, online surveys and a workshop to rank the likelihood of adverse long-term effects from crop-trait combinations.

The report does not consider the possible magnitude of the risks due to lack of quantitative information, nor measures to mitigate them.

Report 2006pdf(981 kB) Choose translations of the previous link 

Final reportpdf(625 kB) Choose translations of the previous link 
Annex 1pdf(619 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Annex 2pdf(455 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Annex 3pdf(730 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Annex 4pdf(193 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Annex 5pdf(190 kB) Choose translations of the previous link , Annex 6pdf(77 kB) Choose translations of the previous link 

Implementation of legislation

Directive 2001/18/EC - deliberate release into the environment of GMOs

  • 2nd Commission Report - experience with GMOs marketed under the above Directive - Annexespdf(269 kB) Choose translations of the previous link 
  • Commission Report - experience with GMOs marketed under the above Directive - Annexpdf(54 kB) Choose translations of the previous link 
  • Background Study Reportpdf(438 kB) Choose translations of the previous link  - improve the consistency and efficiency of legislation in biotechnology (Directive 2001/18/EC, Art 31 (7a, 7b and 7d)

Regulation (EC) N°1830/2003 - traceability and labelling of GMOs and traceability of food and feed produced from GMOspdf

Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 - genetically modified food and feedpdf

Directive 2009/41/EC - contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms and Directive 90/219/EEC (replaced by Directive 2009/41/EC)

Evaluation of legislation

Evaluation of the EU legislative framework in the field of cultivation of GMOs under Directive 2001/18/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, and the placing on the market of GMOs as or in products under Directive 2001/18/EC, 2011:

Evaluation of the EU legislative framework in the field of GM food and feed, 2010: