Language selector

  • Current language:en
  GMOs in a nutshellslide

Dowload in PDF format

General issues

  1. What are GMOs?
  2. Facts and figures about GMOs
  3. Who assesses the safety of GMOs?

GM Food and Feed

  1. Is the placing on the EU market of GM food and feed governed by any legislation?
  2. What are the principles of the Regulation on GM food and feed?
  3. What is the authorisation procedure under the Regulation on GM food and feed?
  4. Have GMOs already been approved for use in food or feed products?
  5. What are the current rules on genetically modified varieties and seeds?
  6. What is the timeline for GM food and feed approval?

GMOs in the environment

  1. What are GMOs released into the environment?
  2. What does Directive 2001/18/EC introduce?
  3. What is the procedure for authorisation of the experimental release of GMOs into the environment?
  4. What is the procedure for authorising the placing on the market of GMOs as such or as a component in products?
  5. How is the environmental risk of GMOs assessed?
  6. Have GMOs already been authorised for release into the environment?

Ban on GMOs

  1. What are the national safeguard measures?
  2. Are there any national safeguard measures concerning GM foods?
  3. Are any national safeguard measures concerning GM seed varieties included in the common catalogue of varieties?
  4. Which EU countries ban the cultivation of GMOs?

Rules on GMOs already on the market

  1. Why it is important to trace GMOs in the EU market?
  2. How does traceability work in practice?

    Traceability can be defined as the ability to trace products through the production and distribution line. For example, if a genetically modified seed constitutes the raw material of a food product, the company selling the seed would have to inform any purchaser that it is genetically modified, together with more specific information allowing the specific GMO to be precisely identified. The company is also obliged to keep a register of business operators who have bought the seed.

    Equally the farmer would have to inform any purchaser of the harvest that it is genetically modified and keep a register of operators to whom he has made the harvest available.


  3. What are the rules on traceability of GMOs?
  4. What are the rules on labelling of GMO products?
  5. Exemption from the traceability and labelling requirements.
  6. Will the meat or milk of an animal fed with GM feed also be labelled as genetically modified?

Asynchronous authorisations

  1. What is asynchronous authorisation?
  2. What is the impact of GMO asynchronous authorisations on the EU market?

Contamination with unauthorised GMOs

  1. Emergency Measures


  1. What are the rules on co-existence between transgenic crops and traditional or organic crops?

The international environment

  1. Is the regulatory framework in line with international trade rules?
  2. Codex Alimentarius
  3. What are the rules governing the movement and international trade of GMOs?
  4. WTO case on GMO
  5. OECD




Public HealthFood SafetyConsumer Affairs
requires javascript