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Vesicular stomatitis

Description - Control measures - Notification and health situation


Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease of domestic equine, bovine and porcine animals. Wild hosts are the white-tailed deer and numerous species of small mammals in the tropics. VS can be transmitted to humans (minor zoonosis).

The disease is characterized by excessive salivation, vesicles of various sizes in the mouth and lesions to the epithelial tissues of the mouth, teats and feet.
The symptomatology is similar to that of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), with which it can easily be confused (but horses are resistant to FMD and susceptible to VS.

The disease is caused by a virus of the Rhabdoviridae family, genus Vesiculovirus.

Transmission : contamination by transcutaneous or transmucosal route or transmission through arthropods (mosquitoes,...).

Occurrence : VS is limited to the Americas.

There is no specific treatment. Antibiotics may prevent secondary infections of abraded tissues. Animal movement should be restricted and a laboratory diagnosis must be performed rapidly. Trucks and fomites should be disinfected.

Differentiation from foot-and-mouth disease is very important.

Vesicular stomatitis (VS): In accordance with Resolution 32 adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE during its 82nd General Session 25 – 30 May 2014, VS has been deleted from the OIE list of diseases (Chapter 1.2. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 23rd Edition 2014).

For more details, click on the OIE technical card on VS.

Control measures

Council Directive 92/119/EEC of 17 December 1992 introducing general Community measures for the control of certain animal diseases and specific measures relating to swine vesicular disease. pdf

Notification and Health Situation

Vesicular stomatitis is a notifiable disease, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC EEC of 21 December 1982 on the notification of animal diseases within the Community.

Click on ADNS for a description of the notification system and the latest health situation table.