Newcastle disease (ND) is a disease of major importance for poultry and other birds. It is caused by specified viruses of the avian paramyxovirus type (APMV-I) of the family Paramyxoviridae. The disease is characterised by respiratory and/or nervous signs, partial or complete cessation of egg production or misshapen eggs, greenish watery diarrhoea and oedema of the tissues around the eyes and the neck.
Transmission: the infection is spread via direct contact with secretions, especially faeces, from infected birds or indirect contact through contaminated feed, water, equipment, vehicles, humans, fomites etc.
Vaccination: the use of prophylactic and emergency vaccination is permitted. Prophylactic vaccination is applied on a large scale in the EU and elsewhere in the world. All Member States except Sweden, Finland and Estonia apply a prophylactic vaccination policy. So far emergency vaccination was used only once in Italy during an outbreak in 2001.
ND is a disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and due to its potential for very serious and rapid spread, irrespective of national borders with serious socio-economic consequences requirements for international trade of live animals and animal products are laid down in the Terrestrial code (http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/mcode/en_sommaire.htm).
For more details, click on the OIE technical card on Newcastle disease.
Council Directive 92/66/EEC on Community measures to control Newcastle disease.
In case of disease outbreaks specific control measures including killing of infected animals and those suspected to be infected or contaminated need to be implemented in the infected holdings and areas around the outbreaks. Council Directive 92/66/EEC requires setting up a 3km protection zone and 10km surveillance zone. The protection zone measures must be applied for at least 21 days, and the surveillance zone measures must be applied for at least 30 days after the cleansing and disinfection of the outbreak holding.
Newcastle Disease is a notifiable disease, according to Council Directive 82/894/EEC of 21 December 1982 on the notification of animal diseases within the Community.
Click on ADNS for a description of the notification system and the latest health situation table.
Community Reference Laboratory
The Community Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease is the VLA Weybridge
(Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK)
Joint Annual Meetings of the National Reference Laboratories for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease are held to discuss the disease status in Member States and third countries and diagnostic developments (proceedings).
Other useful links